mtree -- map a directory hierarchy
mtree [-LPUcdeinqruxw] [-f spec] [-f spec] [-K keywords]
[-k keywords] [-p path] [-s seedexclude-list]
compares the file hierarchy rooted in the current directory against a specification read from the
standard input. Messages are written to the standard output for any files whose characteristics do not match the
specifications, or which are missing from either the file hierarchy or the specification.
Specifications are mostly composed of ``keywords'', i.e., strings that specify values relating to files. No keywords
have default values, and if a keyword has no value set, no checks based on it are performed.
| create specification for the file hierarchy and output it to standard output.
| directory only
-e Do not complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but not in the specification.
| Read the specification from file, instead of from the standard input.
If specified twice, the two specifications are compared.|
The specifications be sorted like output generated using -c.
The output format in this case is similar to comm(1), having "in first spec only", "in second spec only", and "different" columns,
prefixed by zero, one and two TAB characters . Each entry in the "different" column occupies two lines, one from each specification.
| Indent the output 4 spaces each time a directory level is descended during create.|
This does not affect either the /set statements or the comment before each directory. affects the comment before the close of each directory.
|Add keywords to the current set of keywords. |
whitespace or comma separated)
type keyword plus the specified keywords instead of the current set of keywords.
whitespace or comma separated)
| Follow all symbolic links in the file hierarchy.
| Do not output pathname comments when creating a specification. Normally a comment is output before each directory and before the close of that directory when using the -c option.
| Do not follow symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead consider the symbolic link itself in any comparisons. Default.
| Use the file hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current directory.
| Quiet mode. Do not complain when a `missing' directory cannot be created because it already exists.
occurs when the directory is a symbolic link.
| Display a single checksum to the standard error output that represents all of the files for which the keyword cksum was specified. The checksum is seeded with the specified value.
| Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in the specification.
| Modify the owner, group, permissions, and modification time of existing files to match the specification and
create any missing directories or symbolic links. User, group and permissions must all be specified for missing
directories to be created. Corrected mismatches are not considered errors.
| Same as -U except a status of 2 is returned if the file hierarchy did not match the specification.
| Make some error conditions non-fatal warnings.
| exclude-list The specified file contains fnmatch(3) patterns matching files to be excluded from the specification, one to a
line. If the pattern contains a |
/ character, it will be matched against entire pathnames (relative to the
starting directory); otherwise, it will be matched against basenames only. No comments are allowed in the
| Do not descend below mount points in the file hierarchy.
cksum The checksum of the file using the default algorithm specified by the cksum(1) utility.
flags The file flags as a symbolic name. See chflags(1) for information on these names. If no flags are to be
set the string ``none'' may be used to override the current default.
ignore Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.
md5digest The MD5 message digest of the file.
sha1digest The FIPS 160-1 (``SHA-1'') message digest of the file.
ripemd160digest The RIPEMD160 message digest of the file.
mode The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or symbolic value.
nlink The number of hard links the file is expected to have.
nochange Make sure this file or directory exists but otherwise ignore all attributes.
gid The file group as a numeric value.
uid The file owner as a numeric value.
uname The file owner as a symbolic name.
gname The file group as a symbolic name.
size The size, in bytes, of the file.
link The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.
time The last modification time of the file.
type The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following:
file regular file link symbolic link
block block special device char character special device
The default set of keywords are flags, gid, mode, nlink, size, link, time, and uid.
The mtree utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error occurred, and 2 if the file hierarchy did not
match the specification. A status of 2 is converted to a status of 0 if the -U option is used.
sets a global value for a keyword, and consists of the string ``/set'' followed by whitespace,
followed by sets of keyword/value pairs, separated by whitespace. Keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed
by an equals sign (``=''), followed by a value, without whitespace characters. Once a keyword has been set, its value
remains unchanged until either reset or unset.
- unsets keywords and consists of the string ``/unset'', followed by whitespace, followed by one
or more keywords, separated by whitespace.
- file specification and consists of a file name, followed by whitespace, followed by zero
or more whitespace separated keyword/value pairs. The file name may be preceded by whitespace characters. The file
name may contain any of the standard file name matching characters (``['', ``]'', ``?'' or ``*''), in which case files
in the hierarchy will be associated with the first pattern that they match.
Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (``=''), followed by the keyword's
value, without whitespace characters. These values override, without changing, the global value of the corresponding
All paths are relative. Specifying a directory will cause subsequent files to be searched for in that directory hier-
archy. Which brings us to the last type of line in a specification: a line containing only the string ``..'' causes
the current directory path to ascend one level.
Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark (``#'') are ignored.
/etc/mtree system specification directory
The mtree utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
The -d and -u options can be used in combination to create directory hierarchies for distributions and other such
things; the files in /etc/mtree were used to create almost all directories in this FreeBSD distribution.
chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), md5(1), stat(2), fts(3), md5(3), chown(8)
The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno. The MD5 digest capability was added in FreeBSD 2.1, in response to the
widespread use of programs which can spoof cksum(1). The SHA-1 and RIPEMD160 digests were added in FreeBSD 4.0, as
new attacks have demonstrated weaknesses in MD5. Support for file flags was added in FreeBSD 4.0, and mostly comes
# user: root
# machine: smackerPro
# tree: /private/var/root
# date: Sun Aug 5 17:40:33 2012
/set type=file uid=0 gid=0 mode=0700 nlink=1 flags=none
. type=dir mode=0750 nlink=19 size=646 time=1344199346.0
mode=0644 size=3 time=1313074425.0
.DS_Store mode=0644 size=6148 time=1344190378.0
.forward mode=0444 size=10 time=1336685384.0 flags=compressed
.lesshst mode=0600 size=41 time=1344199346.0
.sh_history mode=0600 size=4715 time=1344199097.0
.viminfo mode=0600 size=10908 time=1344191992.0
.Trash type=dir nlink=2 size=68 time=1344190114.0
/set type=file uid=0 gid=0 mode=0644 nlink=1 flags=none
.ssh type=dir mode=0700 nlink=3 size=102 time=1344192435.0
known_hosts size=419 time=1344192435.0