As commands are entered they are stored in the history list and are retained across sessions.
Commands can be recalled with the
modified as if they had just been entered and executed (see readline)
When using command-line editing, search commands are available in each editing mode that provide access to the history list (see Commands For History).
history [n] †
history -ps args
history [-anrw] [filename]
history -d offset
Display the last
n lines of the history list with line numbers,
* indicates modified line.
> history 6 829 2016-02-17 16:03:39 vi diskUtilityDefaultsAll.html 830 2016-02-17 16:12:57 chmod 704 diskUtilityDefaultsAll.html 831 2016-02-17 16:13:15 vi defaults.1.html 832 2016-02-17 18:25:30 cd docs 833 2016-02-17 18:25:40 ls -l disk*
set -o history enables the history (default for interactive shells).
filename defaults to
At login the history is initialized from
When an interactive shell exits, the last
$HISTSIZE (default 1000) lines are copied from the history to
$HISTFILE (or appended based on
$HISTAPPEND ) and then truncated to
$HISTIGNORE control the text of the command, prior to parameter a> and variable expansion but after history expansion.
causes commands that don't modify anything to be ignored when commands are added to history .
$HISTTIMEFORMAT (default sometimes:
%F %T) format string for
strftime to display time stamps
included with each entry, marked with the history comment character. When the history file is read, lines beginning with the history comment character followed immediately by a digit are interpreted as timestamps.
shopt can be used to set :
cmdhist on|offcausing each line of a multi-line command in the same history entry
lithist on|off(Literal History) causes the commands to be saved with embedded newlines
Lists or edits and re-execute a portion of the history list.
fc [-e editor] [-lnr] [first] [last]
fc -s [pat=rep] [command]
last may be strings (to locate the most recent command beginning with that string) or
numbers, an index into the history list, a negative number is used as an offset from the current command number.
first is not specified it is set to -1 i.e. the previous command for editing and -16 for listing.
last is not specified it is set to
first reulting in a range on one.
-l lists commands.
-n no command numbers are shown.
-r reverses the order of the listing. (without
-l, results in commands being executed in the reverse order then when they were entered !)
vi is invoked on a file containing those commands.
When editing is complete, the edited commands are echoed and executed.
fc -s [pat=rep] [command]
command is executed after all
pat replaced by
A useful alias is
r='fc -s', so that typing
r cc runs the last command beginning with
cc and typing
r re-executes the last command (see Aliases).
Introduced by the appearance of the history expansion character, default:
Enabled by default for interactive shells, and can be disabled using
History expansions introduce words from the history list into the input stream, making it easy to repeat commands, insert the arguments to a previous command into the current input line, or fix errors in previous commands quickly.
History expansion is performed immediately after a complete line is read, before the shell breaks it into words. It takes place in parts.
'may be used to escape the history expansion character.
shopt may be used to tailor the behavior of history expansion.
histverify is enabled, expanded line is loaded into the editing buffer for further modification.
histreedit is enabled, a failed history expansion will be reloaded into the editing buffer for correction.
The shell allows control of the various characters used by the history expansion mechanism with the histchars variable, as explained above (see Bash Variables). The shell uses the history comment character to mark history timestamps when writing the history file.
: separates the event specification from the word designator
and may be omitted if the word designator begins with a
If no event specification the previous command is used as the event.
Words are numbered from the beginning of the line, beginning with 0̸ (zero).
Words are inserted into the current line separated by single spaces.
For example: preceding command. When you type this, the preceding command is repeated in toto.:
last argument of the preceding command.
!!:$ shortened to
second argument of the most recent command starting with the letters fi.