httpd - Apache hypertext transfer protocol server

httpd [ -X ] [ -R libexecdir ] [ -d serverroot ] [ -f config ] [ -C directive ] [ -c directive ] [ -D parameter ]

httpd [ -h ] [ -l ] [ -L ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -S ] [ -t ] [ -T ]

Apache HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is designed to be run as a stand-alone daemon process, creating a pool of child processes to handle requests.

sudo apachectl start|stop|restart

The ugly way to stop it: send a TERM signal to the initial (parent) process. The PID of this process is written to a file as given in the configuration file.

Alternatively httpd may be invoked by the Internet daemon inetd(8) each time a connection to the HTTP service is made.

For details of the see the Apache manual httpd.apache.org.
Paths in this manual may not reflect those compiled into httpd.
-R libexecdir only available if Apache was built with the SHARED_CORE rule enabled which forces the Apache core code to be placed into a dynamic shared object (DSO) file. This file is searched in a hardcoded path under ServerRoot per default. Use this option to override it.
-d serverroot Set the initial value for the ServerRoot directive to serverroot. This can be overridden by the ServerRoot command in the configuration file. The default is /usr/local/apache.
-f config Execute the commands in the file config on startup. If config does not begin with a /, then it is taken to be a path relative to the ServerRoot. The default is conf/httpd.conf.
-C directive Process before reading config files.
-c directive Process reading config files.
-D parameter Sets a configuration parameter which can be used with ... sections in the configuration files to conditionally skip or process commands.
-l Output a list of modules compiled into the server.
-L Output a list of directives together with expected arguments and places where the directive is valid.
-S Show the settings as parsed from the config file (currently only shows the virtualhost settings).
-t Run syntax tests for configuration files only. The program immediately exits after these syntax parsing with either a return code of 0 (Syntax OK) or return code not equal to 0 (Syntax Error).
-T Same as option -t but does not check the configured document roots.
-X Run in single-process mode, for internal debugging purposes only; the daemon does not detach from the terminal or fork any children. Do NOT use this mode to provide ordinary web service.
-v output version and then exit.
-V output version and build parameters then exit.
Server version: Apache/2.2.22 (Unix)
Server built:   Aug 24 2012 17:16:58
Server's Module Magic Number: 20051115:30
Server loaded:  APR 1.4.5, APR-Util 1.3.12
Compiled using: APR 1.4.5, APR-Util 1.3.12
Architecture:   64-bit
Server MPM:     Prefork
  threaded:     no
    forked:     yes (variable process count)
Server compiled with....
 -D APACHE_MPM_DIR="server/mpm/prefork"
 -D APR_HAS_SENDFILE
 -D APR_HAS_MMAP
 -D APR_HAVE_IPV6 (IPv4-mapped addresses enabled)
 -D APR_USE_FLOCK_SERIALIZE
 -D APR_USE_PTHREAD_SERIALIZE
 -D SINGLE_LISTEN_UNSERIALIZED_ACCEPT
 -D APR_HAS_OTHER_CHILD
 -D AP_HAVE_RELIABLE_PIPED_LOGS
 -D DYNAMIC_MODULE_LIMIT=128
 -D HTTPD_ROOT="/usr"
 -D SUEXEC_BIN="/usr/bin/suexec"
 -D DEFAULT_PIDLOG="/private/var/run/httpd.pid"
 -D DEFAULT_SCOREBOARD="logs/apache_runtime_status"
 -D DEFAULT_LOCKFILE="/private/var/run/accept.lock"
 -D DEFAULT_ERRORLOG="logs/error_log"
 -D AP_TYPES_CONFIG_FILE="/private/etc/apache2/mime.types"
 -D SERVER_CONFIG_FILE="/private/etc/apache2/httpd.conf"

       
-h Output a short summary of available command line options.
Usage: ./httpd [-D name] [-d directory] [-f file]
               [-C "directive"] [-c "directive"]
               [-k start|restart|graceful|graceful-stop|stop]
               [-v] [-V] [-h] [-l] [-L] [-t] [-T] [-S]
Options:
  -D name            : define a name for use in  directives
  -d directory       : specify an alternate initial ServerRoot
  -f file            : specify an alternate ServerConfigFile
  -C "directive"     : process directive before reading config files
  -c "directive"     : process directive after reading config files
  -e level           : show startup errors of level (see LogLevel)
  -E file            : log startup errors to file
  -v                 : show version number
  -V                 : show compile settings
  -h                 : list available command line options (this page)
  -l                 : list compiled in modules
  -L                 : list available configuration directives
  -t -D DUMP_VHOSTS  : show parsed settings (currently only vhost settings)
  -S                 : a synonym for -t -D DUMP_VHOSTS
  -t -D DUMP_MODULES : show all loaded modules 
  -M                 : a synonym for -t -D DUMP_MODULES
  -t                 : run syntax check for config files
  -T                 : start without DocumentRoot(s) check

       

FILES

       /etc/httpd/httpd.conf
       /etc/httpd/srm.conf
       /etc/httpd/access.conf
       /etc/httpd/mime.types
       /etc/httpd/magic
       /var/log/httpd/error_log
       /var/log/httpd/access_log
       /var/run/httpd.pid

htpasswd generate passwords

.htaccess contains pointer to the password file.

.htpasswd is a frequent name.

See also

inetd

<Directory (core.c) Container for directives affecting resources located in the specified directories
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
<Location (core.c) Container for directives affecting resources accessed through the specified URL paths
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
<VirtualHost (core.c) Container to map directives to a particular virtual host, takes one or more host addresses
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
<Files (core.c) Container for directives affecting files matching specified patterns
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
<Limit (core.c) Container for authentication directives when accessed using specified HTTP methods
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
<LimitExcept (core.c) Container for authentication directives to be applied when any HTTP method other than those specified is used to access the resource
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
<IfModule (core.c) Container for directives based on existance of specified modules
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
<IfDefine (core.c) Container for directives based on existance of command line defines
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
<DirectoryMatch (core.c) Container for directives affecting resources located in the specified directories
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
<LocationMatch (core.c) Container for directives affecting resources accessed through the specified URL paths
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
<FilesMatch (core.c) Container for directives affecting files matching specified patterns
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
AuthType (core.c) An HTTP authorization type (e.g., "Basic")
           Allowed in *.conf only inside Directory, Files or Location and in .htaccess when AllowOverride includes AuthConfig
AuthName (core.c) The authentication realm (e.g. "Members Only")
           Allowed in *.conf only inside Directory, Files or Location and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes AuthConfig
Require (core.c) Selects which authenticated users or groups may access a protected space
           Allowed in *.conf only inside Directory, Files or Location and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes AuthConfig
Satisfy (core.c) access policy if both allow and require used ('all' or 'any')
           Allowed in *.conf only inside Directory, Files or Location and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes AuthConfig
AddDefaultCharset (core.c) The name of the default charset to add to any Content-Type without one or 'Off' to disable
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
AcceptPathInfo (core.c) Set to on or off for PATH_INFO to be accepted by handlers, or default for the per-handler preference
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
AccessFileName (core.c) Name(s) of per-directory config files (default: .htaccess)
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
DocumentRoot (core.c) Root directory of the document tree
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ErrorDocument (core.c) Change responses for HTTP errors
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
AllowOverride (core.c) Controls what groups of directives can be configured by per-directory config files
           Allowed in *.conf only inside Directory, Files or Location
Options (core.c) Set a number of attributes for a given directory
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes Options
DefaultType (core.c) the default MIME type for untypable files
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
FileETag (core.c) Specify components used to construct a file's ETag
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
EnableMMAP (core.c) Controls whether memory-mapping may be used to read files
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
EnableSendfile (core.c) Controls whether sendfile may be used to transmit files
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
Protocol (core.c) Set the Protocol for httpd to use.
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
AcceptFilter (core.c) Set the Accept Filter to use for a protocol
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
Port (core.c) Port was replaced with Listen in Apache 2.0
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
HostnameLookups (core.c) "on" to enable, "off" to disable reverse DNS lookups, or "double" to enable double-reverse DNS lookups
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere
ServerAdmin (core.c) The email address of the server administrator
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ServerName (core.c) The hostname and port of the server
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ServerSignature (core.c) En-/disable server signature (on|off|email)
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride isn't None
ServerRoot (core.c) Common directory of server-related files (logs, confs, etc.)
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ErrorLog (core.c) The filename of the error log
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ServerAlias (core.c) A name or names alternately used to access the server
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ServerPath (core.c) The pathname the server can be reached at
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
Timeout (core.c) Timeout duration (sec)
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ContentDigest (core.c) whether or not to send a Content-MD5 header with each request
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess
           when AllowOverride includes Options
UseCanonicalName (core.c) How to work out the ServerName : Port when constructing URLs
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere
UseCanonicalPhysicalPort (core.c) Whether to use the physical Port when constructing URLs
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere
Include (core.c) Name of the config file to be included
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere
LogLevel (core.c) Level of verbosity in error logging
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
NameVirtualHost (core.c) A numeric IP address:port, or the name of a host
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ServerTokens (core.c) Determine tokens displayed in the Server: header - Min(imal), OS or Full
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
LimitRequestLine (core.c) Limit on maximum size of an HTTP request line
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
LimitRequestFieldsize (core.c) Limit on maximum size of an HTTP request header field
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
LimitRequestFields (core.c) Limit (0 = unlimited) on max number of header fields in a request message
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
LimitRequestBody (core.c) Limit (in bytes) on maximum size of request message body
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
LimitXMLRequestBody (core.c) Limit (in bytes) on maximum size of an XML-based request body
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
MaxRanges (core.c) Maximum number of Ranges in a request before returning the entire resource, or 0 for unlimited
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere
RLimitCPU (core.c) Soft/hard limits for max CPU usage in seconds
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
RLimitMEM (core.c) Soft/hard limits for max memory usage per process
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
RLimitNPROC (core.c) soft/hard limits for max number of processes per uid
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
LimitInternalRecursion (core.c) maximum recursion depth of internal redirects and subrequests
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ForceType (core.c) a mime type that overrides other configured type
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
SetHandler (core.c) a handler name that overrides any other configured handler
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
SetOutputFilter (core.c) filter (or ; delimited list of filters) to be run on the request content
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
SetInputFilter (core.c) filter (or ; delimited list of filters) to be run on the request body
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
AddOutputFilterByType (core.c) output filter name followed by one or more content-types
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere and in .htaccess when AllowOverride includes FileInfo
AllowEncodedSlashes (core.c) Allow URLs containing '/' encoded as '%2F'
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
PidFile (core.c) A file for logging the server process ID
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ScoreBoardFile (core.c) A file for Apache to maintain runtime process management information
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
LockFile (core.c) The lockfile used when Apache needs to lock the accept() call
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
MaxRequestsPerChild (core.c) Maximum number of requests a particular child serves before dying.
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
CoreDumpDirectory (core.c) The location of the directory Apache changes to before dumping core
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
AcceptMutex (core.c) Valid accept mutexes for this platform and MPM are: default, flock, fcntl, sysvsem, posixsem, pthread.
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
MaxMemFree (core.c) Maximum number of 1k blocks a particular childs allocator may hold.
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ThreadStackSize (core.c) Size in bytes of stack used by threads handling client connections
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
TraceEnable (core.c) 'on' (default), 'off' or 'extended' to trace request body content
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
Suexec (core.c) Enable or disable suEXEC support
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
CustomLog (mod_log_config.c) a file name, a custom log format string or format name, and an optional "env=" clause (see docs)
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
TransferLog (mod_log_config.c) the filename of the access log
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
LogFormat (mod_log_config.c) a log format string (see docs) and an optional format name
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
CookieLog (mod_log_config.c) the filename of the cookie log
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
BufferedLogs (mod_log_config.c) Enable Buffered Logging (experimental)
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
<IfVersion (mod_version.c) a comparison operator, a version (and a delimiter)
           Allowed in *.conf anywhere [no per-dir config] and in .htaccess when AllowOverride isn't None
User (worker.c) Effective user id for this server
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
Group (worker.c) Effective group id for this server
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ChrootDir (worker.c) The directory to chroot(2) into
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ListenBacklog (worker.c) Maximum length of the queue of pending connections, as used by listen(2)
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
Listen (worker.c) A port number or a numeric IP address and a port number, and an optional protocol
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
SendBufferSize (worker.c) Send buffer size in bytes
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ReceiveBufferSize (worker.c) Receive buffer size in bytes
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
StartServers (worker.c) Number of child processes launched at server startup
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
MinSpareThreads (worker.c) Minimum number of idle threads, to handle request spikes
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
MaxSpareThreads (worker.c) Maximum number of idle threads
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
MaxClients (worker.c) Maximum number of threads alive at the same time
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ThreadsPerChild (worker.c) Number of threads each child creates
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ServerLimit (worker.c) Maximum number of child processes for this run of Apache
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
ThreadLimit (worker.c) Maximum number of worker threads per child process for this run of Apache - Upper limit for ThreadsPerChild
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
GracefulShutdownTimeout (worker.c) Maximum time in seconds to wait for child processes to complete transactions during shutdown
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
KeepAliveTimeout (http_core.c) Keep-Alive timeout duration (sec)
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
MaxKeepAliveRequests (http_core.c) Maximum number of Keep-Alive requests per connection, or 0 for infinite
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
KeepAlive (http_core.c) Whether persistent connections should be On or Off
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
LoadModule (mod_so.c) a module name and the name of a shared object file to load it from
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location
LoadFile (mod_so.c) shared object file or library to load into the server at runtime
           Allowed in *.conf only outside Directory, Files or Location

starting apache under Mac OS X
sudo launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/org.apache.httpd.plist