the content tracker
git [--version] [--help] [-C path [-c name value
[--exec-path[=path]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
[-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=path] [--work-tree=path] [--namespace=name]
tersified from the man page and examples added by DGG
Distributed revision control system that provides both high-level operations and full access to internals.
See gittutorial(7) to get started, then giteveryday(7) for a useful minimum set of commands.
The real docs
|synopsis and commonly used commands. With |
available commands are shown.
usage: git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c name=value]
[--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
[-p | --paginate | --no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
start a working
clone repository into a new directory
init Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one
work on the current change (see also: git help everyday)
add file contents to the index
mv a file, a directory, or a symlink
reset current HEAD to the specified state
rm files from the working tree and from the index
examine the history and state (see also: git help revisions)
bisect Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug
grep output lines matching a pattern
log commit logs
show various types of objects
status the working tree status
grow, mark and tweak your common history
branch List, create, or delete branches
checkout Switch branches or restore working tree files
commit Record changes to the repository
diff Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc
merge Join two or more development histories together
rebase Reapply commits on top of another base tip
tag Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG
collaborate (see also: git help workflows)
fetch Download objects and refs from another repository
pull Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
push Update remote refs along with associated objects
'git help -a' and 'git help -g' list available subcommands and some
concept guides. See 'git help ' or 'git help '
to read about a specific subcommand or concept.
|Run as if git was started in |
-C are given, each subsequent non-absolute
path is relative to the preceding
affects options that expect path name like
--work-tree in that their interpretations
of the path names would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C option. For example the
following invocations are equivalent:
git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
|Pass a configuration parameter to the command. override values from configuration files.
name is in the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by dots).
name to true
name to the empty string.
| Path to core Git programs. Same as setting |
If no path is given, outputs the current setting and exits.
| output the path where HTML documentation is installed and exits. |
| output the manpath and exits. |
| output Info files path and exits.|
| output to |
|Do not output to |
| path to current working directory. See |
| See |
|Treat the repository as a bare repository. |
$GIT_DIR is not set, it is the current working directory.
| Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects.
| Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic), see |
|Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. see |
Use pathspec magic ":(literal)" to disable globbing on individual pathspecs
|Add "literal" magic to all pathspec, see |
Use pathspec magic ":(glob)" to enable globbing on individual pathspecs
|Add "icase" magic to all pathspec, see |
high level ("porcelain") commands and low level ("plumbing") commands.
All commands with
‡ are prefixed with
HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)
We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some ancillary user utilities.
Main porcelain commands
| file contents to the index.
| Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.
| Create an archive of files from a named tree.
| Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.
| List, create, or delete branches.
| Move objects and refs by archive.
| Switch branches or restore working tree files.
| Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.
| Graphical alternative to git-commit.
| Remove untracked files from the working tree.
| Clone a repository into a new directory.
| Record changes to the repository.
| Describe a commit using the most recent tag reachable from it.
| Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
| Download objects and refs from another repository.
| Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
| Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.
| Print lines matching a pattern.
| A portable graphical interface to Git.
| Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.
| Show commit logs.
| Join two or more development histories together.
| Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
| Add or inspect object notes.
| Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.
| Update remote refs along with associated objects.
| Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head.
| Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
| Revert some existing commits.
| Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
| Summarize git log output.
| Show various types of objects.
| Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.
| Show the working tree status.
| Initialize, update or inspect submodules.
| Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.
| Manage multiple working trees.
| The Git repository browser.
| Get and set repository or global options.
| Git data exporter.
| Backend for fast Git data importers.
| Rewrite branches.
| Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.
| Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.
| Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.
| Manage reflog information.
| Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
| Manage set of tracked repositories.
| Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
| Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.
| Annotate file lines with commit information.
| Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.
| Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.
| Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
| Show changes using common diff tools.
| Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
| Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.
| Display help information about Git.
| Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
| Show three-way merge without touching index.
| Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
| Pick out and massage parameters.
| Show branches and their commits.
| Check the GPG signature of commits.
| Check the GPG signature of tags.
| Show logs with difference each commit introduces.
| Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).
|Interacting with Others
interact with foreign Source Control Managers (?) and with other people via patch over e-mail.
| Import an Arch repository into Git.
| Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
| Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
| A CVS server emulator for Git.
| Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.
| Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.
| Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
| Generates a summary of pending changes.
| Send a collection of patches as emails.
| Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.
LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (Plumbing)
Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support development of
alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-index(1) and git-readtree(1).
- manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
- interrogate and compare objects, and
- move objects and references between repositories.
| Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.
| Copy files from the index to the working tree.
| Create a new commit object.
| Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.
| Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.
| Run a three-way file merge.
| Run a merge for files needing merging.
| Creates a tag object.
| Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
| Create a packed archive of objects.
| Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
| Reads tree information into the index.
| Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.
| Unpack objects from a packed archive.
| Register file contents in the working tree to the index.
| Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
| Create a tree object from the current index.
| Provide content or type and size information for repository objects.
| Compares files in the working tree and the index.
| Compare a tree to the working tree or index.
| Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
| Output information on each ref.
| Show information about files in the index and the working tree.
| List references in a remote repository.
| List the contents of a tree object.
| Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
| Find symbolic names for given revs.
| Find redundant pack files.
| Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
| Show packed archive index.
| List references in a local repository.
| Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
| Show a Git logical variable.
| Validate packed Git archive files.
In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the working tree.
| server for repositories.
| Receive missing objects from another repository.
| Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.
| Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.
| Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.
helper commands used with synching ; not used directly.
| Download from a remote repository
| Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.
| Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.
| Receive what is pushed into the repository.
| Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.
| Send archive back to git-archive.
| Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.
Internal helper commands
| Display gitattributes information.
| Debug gitignore / exclude files.
| Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.
| Ensures that a reference name is well formed.
| Display data in columns.
| Retrieve and store user credentials.
| Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.
| Helper to store credentials on disk.
| Produce a merge commit message.
| help add structured information into commit messages.
| Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.
| Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
| The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.
| Compute unique ID for a patch.
| Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.
| Common Git shell script setup code.
| Remove unnecessary whitespace.
Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per repository and are per user.
# or ; indicate a comment.
; core variables
; Don't trust file modes
filemode = false
; user identity
name = "Junio C Hamano"
email = "firstname.lastname@example.org"
Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their operation accordingly. See git-config
name = Dennis German
email = DGermang@Real-World-Systems.com
recentrepo = /Volumes/DATA/dgerman/Documents/computerStuff/onion/gitRepo
clean = git-lfs clean -- %f
smudge = git-lfs smudge -- %f
process = git-lfs filter-process
required = true
|the object name for any type of object.
|a blob object name.
a tree, commit or tag object name. |
A command that takes a
tree-ish argumen ultimately wants to
operate on a tree object but automatically dereferences commit and tag objects that point at a tree.
a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a |
commit-ish argument ultimately wants to operate
commit object automatically dereferences
tag objects that point at a
| that an object type is required. one of: |
blob, tree, commit, or tag.
A command accepting
object can also use symbolic notation:
For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).
|indicates the head of the current branch.
| a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/tag reference).
| a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/head reference).
Read githooks(5) .
Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
The Git Repository These apply to all core Git commands.
may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git
| alternate index file. default |
| for new repositories.
| default |
| old objects can be archived into shared, read-only directories. |
List of object directories (
: separated (on Windows
;)) to search. New objects will not be written to these directories.
GIT_DIR is set then it specifies a path to use instead of the default
.git for the
base of the repository.
|Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be controlled by the --work-tree command-line option
and the core.worktree configuration variable.
|Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The --namespace command-line option also sets this value.
colon-separated list of absolute paths. of directories that Git should not
chdir up into while looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding slow-loading network directories).
It will not exclude the current working directory or a
Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that might be present in order to
compare them with the current directory. if even this access is slow, you can add an empty entry to the
list to tell Git that the subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,
When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository directory, Git tries to find such a directory in
the parent directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it does not cross filesystem
boundaries. Set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries. Like
GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command
|non-worktree files normally in |
$GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and
git-worktree(1) for details. lower precedence than other path variables such as
Git Commits GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE, EMAIL
| Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of context lines shown when a unified diff is
created. This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the Git diff command line.
| default |
path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
old|new-hex 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g. new-file in "git-diff-files"),
old-file when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. old-file in the index).
For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1 parameter, path.
For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.
| A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
| The total number of paths.
| A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge
$PAGER. If it is set to an empty string or
cat, Git will not
launch a pager.
$EDITOR and $VISUAL.
git fetch and git push to connect to a remote system.
[username@]host [-p port] from the URL and the shell command to execute .
$GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over
$GIT_SSH, and is interpreted by the shell, which allows additional
arguments to be included.
$GIT_SSH a program (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).
Usually it is easier to configure any options through
| program which prompts for password. Use STDOUT as password.
|If 0, no prompt
skip reading settings from the system-wide |
$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig . This
can be used along with
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable environment for a script, or
|if 1 |
git blame (in incremental mode),
git log, git check-attr and git check-ignore will flush the output stream after each write.(Useful with pipes)
If 0 buffered I/O.
If is not set, buffered or record-oriented flushing based on if stdout appears to be redirected to a file
|Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in command execution and external command execution.|
1, 2 or
true trace messages will be output to stderr.
Integer value greater than 2 and lower than 10 then used as a file descriptor
Absolute path (starting with / ), write the trace messages into it.
Unsetting , or setting to empty,
false disables trace messages.
Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each access, the pack file name and an offset in the
pack is recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given program. This can help with debugging object
negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK" (but see
GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of clones and fetches.
Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current working directory after Git has completed its
setup phase. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
| Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
| if 1 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For
example, log -- '*.c' will search for commits that touch the path *.c, not
glob *.c matches. useful for feeding literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output, etc).
| if 1 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
|if 1 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
| Setting to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as case-insensitive.
| When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
typically the name of the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the
ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name to
this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
| If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted
repository, this does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some operations in the
presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable automatically when performing destructive operations like git-
prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure an operation
has touched every ref (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).
| If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is
useful to restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted repository. Any protocol not mentioned
will be disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not set at all, all
protocols are enabled. The protocol names currently used by git are:
- git: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP connection (or proxy, if configured)
- file: local file-based path (including file:// URLs, or local paths)
- ssh: (including host:path syntax, git+ssh://, etc).
- http: both "smart http" and "dumb http". not include https; if you want both, you should specify both as http:https.
- any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use hg to allow the git-remote-hg helper)
user-manual and gitcore- tutorial(7).
A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git" subdirectory at the top level. The .git
directory contains, among other things, object database representing the complete history of the
project, an "index" file which links that history to the current contents of the working tree, and named pointers
into that history such as tags and branch heads.
The object database contains objects : blobs, which hold file data; trees, which point to blobs
and other trees to build up directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree and some number of parent commits.
The commit, a "changeset" or "version", represents a step in the project's
history, and each parent represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one parent represent
merges of independent lines of development.
Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history.
name of the most recent commit (or
"head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref
named HEAD contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each path, a blob object and a set of attributes.
The blob object represents the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch.
The attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be updated with new content, and new commits
may be created from the content stored in the index.
The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages") for a given pathname. These stages are used
to hold the various unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
Closing a pull request
The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual and gitcore-tutorial(7) both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.
gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7), gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7),
gitcli(7), The Git User's Manual, gitworkflows(7)
1. Git User's Manual git-htmldocs/user-manual.html
2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual git-htmldocs/user-manual.html#git-concepts
3. howto git-htmldocs/howto-index.html
4. Git API documentation git-htmldocs/technical/api-index.html
5. email@example.com mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org
die.net git workflow