git

the content tracker

git [--version] [--help] [-C path [-c name value
     [--exec-path[=path]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
     [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
     [--git-dir=path] [--work-tree=path] [--namespace=name]
                                                                      command [args]

tersified from the man page and examples added by DGG

Distributed revision control system that provides both high-level operations and full access to internals.

See gittutorial(7) to get started, then giteveryday(7) for a useful minimum set of commands.
The real docs

--version
--help synopsis and commonly used commands. With --all all available commands are shown.
usage: git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c name=value]
           [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
           [-p | --paginate | --no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
           [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
                                                                                        command [<args>]

start a working 
   clone      repository into a new directory
   init       Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one

work on the current change (see also: git help everyday)
   add        file contents to the index
   mv         a file, a directory, or a symlink
   reset      current HEAD to the specified state
   rm         files from the working tree and from the index

examine the history and state (see also: git help revisions)
   bisect     Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug
   grep       output lines matching a pattern
   log        commit logs
   show       various types of objects
   status     the working tree status

grow, mark and tweak your common history
   branch     List, create, or delete branches
   checkout   Switch branches or restore working tree files
   commit     Record changes to the repository
   diff       Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc
   merge      Join two or more development histories together
   rebase     Reapply commits on top of another base tip
   tag        Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG

collaborate (see also: git help workflows)
   fetch      Download objects and refs from another repository
   pull       Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
   push       Update remote refs along with associated objects

'git help -a' and 'git help -g' list available subcommands and some
concept guides. See 'git help ' or 'git help '
to read about a specific subcommand or concept.
-C path Run as if git was started in path
When multiple -C are given, each subsequent non-absolute path is relative to the preceding -C path.

affects options that expect path name like --git-dir and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:

               git --git-dir=a.git   --work-tree=b -C c status
               git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
-c name=value Pass a configuration parameter to the command. override values from configuration files. The name is in the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by dots).

Omitting the = sets name to true
Omitting value sets name to the empty string.

--exec-path[=path] Path to core Git programs. Same as setting $GIT_EXEC_PATH.
If no path is given, outputs the current setting and exits.
/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr/libexec/git-core
--html-path output the path where HTML documentation is installed and exits.
/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr/share/doc/git-doc
--man-path output the manpath and exits.
/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr/share/man
--info-path output Info files path and exits.
/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr/share/info
-p
--paginate
output to $PAGER
--no-pager Do not output to $PAGER.
--git-dir=path path to current working directory. See $GIT_DIR,
--work-tree=path See $GIT_WORK_TREE and core.worktree
--namespace=path See $GIT_NAMESPACE
--bare Treat the repository as a bare repository.
If $GIT_DIR is not set, it is the current working directory.
--no-replace-objects Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects.
--literal-pathspecs Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic), see $GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS
--glob-pathspecs Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. see $GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS
Use pathspec magic ":(literal)" to disable globbing on individual pathspecs
--noglob-pathspecs Add "literal" magic to all pathspec, see $GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS
Use pathspec magic ":(glob)" to enable globbing on individual pathspecs
--icase-pathspecs Add "icase" magic to all pathspec, see $GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS

GIT COMMANDS: high level ("porcelain") commands and low level ("plumbing") commands.

All commands with are prefixed with git-

HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)

We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some ancillary user utilities.

Main porcelain commands

‡add(1) file contents to the index.
‡am(1) Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.
‡archive(1) Create an archive of files from a named tree.
‡bisect(1) Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.
‡branch(1) List, create, or delete branches.
‡bundle(1) Move objects and refs by archive.
‡checkout Switch branches or restore working tree files.
‡cherry-pick Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.
‡citool Graphical alternative to git-commit.
‡clean Remove untracked files from the working tree.
‡clone Clone a repository into a new directory.
‡commit Record changes to the repository.
‡describe Describe a commit using the most recent tag reachable from it.
‡diff Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
‡fetch Download objects and refs from another repository.
‡format-patch Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
‡gc Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.
‡grep Print lines matching a pattern.
‡gui A portable graphical interface to Git.
‡init Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.
‡log Show commit logs.
‡merge Join two or more development histories together.
‡mv Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
‡notes Add or inspect object notes.
‡pull Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.
‡push Update remote refs along with associated objects.
‡rebase Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head.
‡reset Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
‡revert Revert some existing commits.
‡rm Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
‡shortlog Summarize git log output.
‡show Show various types of objects.
‡stash Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.
‡status Show the working tree status.
‡submodule Initialize, update or inspect submodules.
‡tag Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.
‡worktree Manage multiple working trees.
gitk The Git repository browser.
Ancillary Commands Manipulators:
‡config Get and set repository or global options.
‡fast-export Git data exporter.
‡fast-import Backend for fast Git data importers.
‡filter-branch Rewrite branches.
‡mergetool Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.
‡pack-refs Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.
‡prune Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.
‡reflog Manage reflog information.
‡relink Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
‡remote Manage set of tracked repositories.
‡repack Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
‡replace Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.

Interrogators:

‡annotate Annotate file lines with commit information.
‡blame Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.
‡cherry Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.
‡count-objects Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
‡difftool Show changes using common diff tools.
‡fsck Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
‡get-tar-commit-id Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.
‡help Display help information about Git.
‡instaweb Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
‡merge-tree Show three-way merge without touching index.
‡rerere Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
‡rev-parse Pick out and massage parameters.
‡show-branch Show branches and their commits.
‡verify-commit Check the GPG signature of commits.
‡verify-tag Check the GPG signature of tags.
git-whatchanged Show logs with difference each commit introduces.
gitweb Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).
Interacting with Others interact with foreign Source Control Managers (?) and with other people via patch over e-mail.
‡archimport Import an Arch repository into Git.
‡cvsexportcommit Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
‡cvsimport Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
‡cvsserver A CVS server emulator for Git.
‡imap-send Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.
‡p4 Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.
‡quiltimport Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
‡request-pull Generates a summary of pending changes.
‡send-email Send a collection of patches as emails.
‡svn Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.

LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (Plumbing)

Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-index(1) and git-readtree(1).

  1. manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
  2. interrogate and compare objects, and
  3. move objects and references between repositories.

Manipulation commands

‡apply Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.
‡checkout-index Copy files from the index to the working tree.
‡commit-tree Create a new commit object.
‡hash-object Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.
‡index-pack Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.
‡merge-file Run a three-way file merge.
‡merge-index Run a merge for files needing merging.
‡mktag Creates a tag object.
‡mktree Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
‡pack-objects Create a packed archive of objects.
‡prune-packed Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
‡read-tree Reads tree information into the index.
‡symbolic-ref Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.
‡unpack-objects Unpack objects from a packed archive.
‡update-index Register file contents in the working tree to the index.
‡update-ref Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
‡write-tree Create a tree object from the current index.

Interrogation commands

‡cat-file Provide content or type and size information for repository objects.
‡diff-files Compares files in the working tree and the index.
‡diff-index Compare a tree to the working tree or index.
‡diff-tree Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
‡for-each-ref Output information on each ref.
‡ls-files Show information about files in the index and the working tree.
‡ls-remote List references in a remote repository.
‡ls-tree List the contents of a tree object.
‡merge-base Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
git-name-rev Find symbolic names for given revs.
‡pack-redundant Find redundant pack files.
‡rev-list Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
‡show-index Show packed archive index.
‡show-ref List references in a local repository.
‡unpack-file Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
‡var Show a Git logical variable.
‡verify-pack Validate packed Git archive files.

In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the working tree.

Synching repositories

‡daemon server for repositories.
‡fetch-pack Receive missing objects from another repository.
‡http-backend Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.
‡send-pack Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.
‡update-server-info Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

helper commands used with synching ; not used directly.

‡http-fetch Download from a remote repository
‡http-push Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.
‡parse-remote Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.
‡receive-pack Receive what is pushed into the repository.
‡shell Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.
‡upload-archive Send archive back to git-archive.
‡upload-pack Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.

Internal helper commands

‡check-attr Display gitattributes information.
‡check-ignore Debug gitignore / exclude files.
‡check-mailmap Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.
‡check-ref-format Ensures that a reference name is well formed.
‡column Display data in columns.
‡credential Retrieve and store user credentials.
‡credential-cache Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.
‡credential-store Helper to store credentials on disk.
‡fmt-merge-msg Produce a merge commit message.
‡interpret-trailers help add structured information into commit messages.
‡mailinfo Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.
‡mailsplit Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
‡merge-one-file The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.
git-patch-id Compute unique ID for a patch.
‡sh-i18n Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.
‡sh-setup Common Git shell script setup code.
‡stripspace Remove unnecessary whitespace.

CONFIGURATION MECHANISM

Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per repository and are per user.

 #  or ; indicate a comment.

           ; core variables
           [core]
                   ; Don't trust file modes
                   filemode = false

           ; user identity
           [user]
                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
                   email = "gitster@pobox.com" 
Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their operation accordingly. See git-config
[user]
    name = Dennis German
    email = DGermang@Real-World-Systems.com
[gui]
[gui]
[gui]
    recentrepo = /Volumes/DATA/dgerman/Documents/computerStuff/onion/gitRepo
[filter "lfs"]
    clean = git-lfs clean -- %f
    smudge = git-lfs smudge -- %f
    process = git-lfs filter-process
    required = true

IDENTIFIER TERMINOLOGY

object the object name for any type of object.
blob a blob object name.
tree
commit
tree-ish a tree, commit or tag object name.
A command that takes a tree-ish argumen ultimately wants to operate on a tree object but automatically dereferences commit and tag objects that point at a tree.
commit-ish a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a commit-ish argument ultimately wants to operate on a commit object automatically dereferences tag objects that point at a commit.
type that an object type is required. one of: blob, tree, commit, or tag.
file

SYMBOLIC IDENTIFIERS

A command accepting object can also use symbolic notation:

HEAD indicates the head of the current branch.
tag a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/tag reference).
head a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/head reference).
For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7). ,p>

FILE/DIRECTORY STRUCTURE

see gitrepository-layout(5).
Read githooks(5) .
Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the $GIT_DIR.

Environment Variables

The Git Repository These apply to all core Git commands.
may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git

GIT_INDEX_FILE alternate index file. default $GIT_DIR/index
GIT_INDEX_VERSION for new repositories.
GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY default $GIT_DIR/objects
GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES old objects can be archived into shared, read-only directories.
List of object directories ( : separated (on Windows ;)) to search. New objects will not be written to these directories.
If GIT_DIR is set then it specifies a path to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
See --git-dir
GIT_WORK_TREE Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
GIT_NAMESPACE Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The --namespace command-line option also sets this value.
GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES colon-separated list of absolute paths. of directories that Git should not chdir up into while looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding slow-loading network directories).
It will not exclude the current working directory or a $GIT_DIR. Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that might be present in order to compare them with the current directory. if even this access is slow, you can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g., $GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink.
GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it does not cross filesystem boundaries. Set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries. Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.
GIT_COMMON_DIR non-worktree files normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for details. lower precedence than other path variables such as $GIT_INDEX_FILE, $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY... Git Commits GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE, EMAIL see git-commit-tree

Git Diffs

GIT_DIFF_OPTS Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the Git diff command line.
GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF default diff
called with: path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode

old|new-hex 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,

The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g. new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g. old-file when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. old-file in the index).
For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1 parameter, path.
For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.

GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL The total number of paths.
other
GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITZ A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge
GIT_PAGER overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an empty string or cat, Git will not launch a pager.
GIT_EDITOR overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL.
GIT_SSH
GIT_SSH_COMMAND
git fetch and git push to connect to a remote system.
the [username@]host [-p port] from the URL and the shell command to execute .

$GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
$GIT_SSH a program (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).
Usually it is easier to configure any options through .ssh/config.

GIT_ASKPASS program which prompts for password. Use STDOUT as password.
GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT If 0, no prompt
GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM skip reading settings from the system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig . This can be used along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable environment for a script, or
GIT_FLUSHif 1 git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git check-attr and git check-ignore will flush the output stream after each write.(Useful with pipes)
If 0 buffered I/O.
If is not set, buffered or record-oriented flushing based on if stdout appears to be redirected to a file
GIT_TRACE Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in command execution and external command execution.
1, 2 or true trace messages will be output to stderr.
Integer value greater than 2 and lower than 10 then used as a file descriptor
Absolute path (starting with / ), write the trace messages into it.
Unsetting , or setting to empty, 0 or false disables trace messages.
GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
GIT_TRACE_PACKET Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output. Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of clones and fetches.
GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
GIT_TRACE_SETUP Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current working directory after Git has completed its setup phase. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS if 1 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, log -- '*.c' will search for commits that touch the path *.c, not glob *.c matches. useful for feeding literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output, etc).
GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS if 1 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS if 1 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS Setting to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as case-insensitive.
GIT_REFLOG_ACTION When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is typically the name of the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name to this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
GIT_REF_PARANOIA If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable automatically when performing destructive operations like git- prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).
GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names currently used by git are:
  • git: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP connection (or proxy, if configured)
  • file: local file-based path (including file:// URLs, or local paths)
  • ssh: (including host:path syntax, git+ssh://, etc).
  • rsync:
  • http: both "smart http" and "dumb http". not include https; if you want both, you should specify both as http:https.
  • any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use hg to allow the git-remote-hg helper)

DISCUSSION

user-manual[2] and gitcore- tutorial(7).

A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git" subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other things, object database representing the complete history of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such as tags and branch heads.

The object database contains objects : blobs, which hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree and some number of parent commits.

The commit, a "changeset" or "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one parent represent merges of independent lines of development.

Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. name of the most recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.

The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each path, a blob object and a set of attributes.
The blob object represents the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch.
The attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the content stored in the index.

The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages") for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.

Closing a pull request

further documentation

The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7) both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture. gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows. the howto[3]

SEE ALSO

gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7), gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's Manual[1], gitworkflows(7) 1. Git User's Manual git-htmldocs/user-manual.html 2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual git-htmldocs/user-manual.html#git-concepts 3. howto git-htmldocs/howto-index.html 4. Git API documentation git-htmldocs/technical/api-index.html 5. git@vger.kernel.org mailto:git@vger.kernel.org See die.net git workflow