the stupid content tracker

git [--version] [--help] [-C path [-c name value
[--exec-path[=path]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=path] [--work-tree=path] [--namespace=name]
command [args]

tersified from the man page and examples added by DGG

Distributed revision control system that provides both high-level operations and full access to internals.

See gittutorial(7) to get started, then giteveryday(7) for a useful minimum set of commands.
The real docs

--version Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.
--help Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands. If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the manual page for that command. Other options are available to control how the manual page is displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help ... is converted internally into git help ....
usage: git [--version] [--help] [-C ] [-c name=value]
           [--exec-path[=]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
           [-p | --paginate | --no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
           [--git-dir=] [--work-tree=] [--namespace=]

These are common Git commands used in various situations:

start a working area (see also: git help tutorial)
   clone      Clone a repository into a new directory
   init       Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one

work on the current change (see also: git help everyday)
   add        Add file contents to the index
   mv         Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink
   reset      Reset current HEAD to the specified state
   rm         Remove files from the working tree and from the index

examine the history and state (see also: git help revisions)
   bisect     Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug
   grep       Print lines matching a pattern
   log        Show commit logs
   show       Show various types of objects
   status     Show the working tree status

grow, mark and tweak your common history
   branch     List, create, or delete branches
   checkout   Switch branches or restore working tree files
   commit     Record changes to the repository
   diff       Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc
   merge      Join two or more development histories together
   rebase     Reapply commits on top of another base tip
   tag        Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG

collaborate (see also: git help workflows)
   fetch      Download objects and refs from another repository
   pull       Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
   push       Update remote refs along with associated objects

'git help -a' and 'git help -g' list available subcommands and some
concept guides. See 'git help ' or 'git help '
to read about a specific subcommand or concept.
-C path Run as if git was started in path instead of the current working directory. When multiple -C options are given, each subsequent non-absolute -C path is interpreted relative to the preceding -C path. This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C option. For example the following invocations are equivalent: git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
-c name=value Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will override values from configuration files. The name is expected in the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by dots). Note that omitting the = in git -c ... is allowed and sets to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would in a config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like git -c ...) sets to the empty string.
--exec-path[=path] Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can also be controlled by setting GIT_EXEC_PATH . If no path is given, git will print the current setting and then exit.
--html-path output the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML documentation is installed and exit.
--man-path output the manpath exit.
--info-path output the path where the Info files are installed and exit.
Pipe all output to less (or $PAGER) if standard output is a terminal. overrides the pager.cmd configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).
--no-pager Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
--git-dir=path can also be controlled by setting $GIT_DIR, an absolute path or relative path to current working directory.
--work-tree=path Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a path relative to the current working directory. This can also be controlled by setting $GIT_WORK_TREE and core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-config(1) for a more detailed discussion).
--namespace=path Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details. Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE
--bare Treat the repository as a bare repository. If $GIT_DIR is not set, it is set to the current working directory.
--no-replace-objects Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-replace(1) for more information.
--literal-pathspecs Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic), equivalent to setting $GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS to 1.
--glob-pathspecs Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. Equivalent to setting $GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS to 1. Disabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"
--noglob-pathspecs Add "literal" magic to all pathspec, equivalent to setting $GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS to 1. Enabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(glob)"
--icase-pathspecs Add "icase" magic to all pathspec, equivalent to setting $GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS to 1.

GIT COMMANDS: high level ("porcelain") commands and low level ("plumbing") commands.

All commands with &ddager; are prefixed with git-


We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some ancillary user utilities. Main porcelain commands
‡add(1) Add file contents to the index.
‡am(1) Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.
‡archive(1) Create an archive of files from a named tree.
‡bisect(1) Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.
‡branch(1) List, create, or delete branches.
‡bundle(1) Move objects and refs by archive.
‡checkout Switch branches or restore working tree files.
‡cherry-pick Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.
‡citool Graphical alternative to git-commit.
‡clean Remove untracked files from the working tree.
‡clone Clone a repository into a new directory.
‡commit Record changes to the repository.
‡describe Describe a commit using the most recent tag reachable from it.
‡diff Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
‡fetch Download objects and refs from another repository.
‡format-patch Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
‡gc Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.
‡grep Print lines matching a pattern.
‡gui A portable graphical interface to Git.
‡init Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.
‡log Show commit logs.
‡merge Join two or more development histories together.
‡mv Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
‡notes Add or inspect object notes.
‡pull Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.
‡push Update remote refs along with associated objects.
‡rebase Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head.
‡reset Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
‡revert Revert some existing commits.
‡rm Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
‡shortlog Summarize git log output.
‡show Show various types of objects.
‡stash Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.
‡status Show the working tree status.
‡submodule Initialize, update or inspect submodules.
‡tag Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.
‡worktree Manage multiple working trees.
gitk The Git repository browser. Ancillary Commands Manipulators:
‡config Get and set repository or global options.
‡fast-export Git data exporter.
‡fast-import Backend for fast Git data importers.
‡filter-branch Rewrite branches.
‡mergetool Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.
‡pack-refs Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.
‡prune Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.
‡reflog Manage reflog information.
‡relink Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
‡remote Manage set of tracked repositories.
‡repack Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
‡replace Create, list, delete refs to replace objects. Interrogators:
‡annotate Annotate file lines with commit information.
‡blame Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.
‡cherry Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.
‡count-objects Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
‡difftool Show changes using common diff tools.
‡fsck Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
‡get-tar-commit-id Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.
‡help Display help information about Git.
‡instaweb Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
‡merge-tree Show three-way merge without touching index.
‡rerere Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
‡rev-parse Pick out and massage parameters.
‡show-branch Show branches and their commits.
‡verify-commit Check the GPG signature of commits.
‡verify-tag Check the GPG signature of tags.
git-whatchanged Show logs with difference each commit introduces.
gitweb Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories). Interacting with Others These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people via patch over e-mail.
‡archimport Import an Arch repository into Git.
‡cvsexportcommit Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
‡cvsimport Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
‡cvsserver A CVS server emulator for Git.
‡imap-send Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.
‡p4 Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.
‡quiltimport Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
‡request-pull Generates a summary of pending changes.
‡send-email Send a collection of patches as emails.
‡svn Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.


Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-index(1) and git-readtree(1).

The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.

The following description divides the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between repositories.

Manipulation commands

‡apply Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.
‡checkout-index Copy files from the index to the working tree.
‡commit-tree Create a new commit object.
‡hash-object Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.
‡index-pack Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.
‡merge-file Run a three-way file merge.
‡merge-index Run a merge for files needing merging.
‡mktag Creates a tag object.
‡mktree Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
‡pack-objects Create a packed archive of objects.
‡prune-packed Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
‡read-tree Reads tree information into the index.
‡symbolic-ref Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.
‡unpack-objects Unpack objects from a packed archive.
‡update-index Register file contents in the working tree to the index.
‡update-ref Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
‡write-tree Create a tree object from the current index.

Interrogation commands

‡cat-file Provide content or type and size information for repository objects.
‡diff-files Compares files in the working tree and the index.
‡diff-index Compare a tree to the working tree or index.
‡diff-tree Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
‡for-each-ref Output information on each ref.
‡ls-files Show information about files in the index and the working tree.
‡ls-remote List references in a remote repository.
‡ls-tree List the contents of a tree object.
‡merge-base Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
git-name-rev Find symbolic names for given revs.
‡pack-redundant Find redundant pack files.
‡rev-list Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
‡show-index Show packed archive index.
‡show-ref List references in a local repository.
‡unpack-file Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
‡var Show a Git logical variable.
‡verify-pack Validate packed Git archive files.

In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the working tree.

Synching repositories

‡daemon A really simple server for Git repositories.
‡fetch-pack Receive missing objects from another repository.
‡http-backend Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.
‡send-pack Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.
‡update-server-info Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

The following are helper commands used by the above; end users typically do not use them directly.

‡http-fetch Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.
‡http-push Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.
‡parse-remote Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.
‡receive-pack Receive what is pushed into the repository.
‡shell Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.
‡upload-archive Send archive back to git-archive.
‡upload-pack Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.

Internal helper commands These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users typically do not use them directly.

‡check-attr Display gitattributes information.
‡check-ignore Debug gitignore / exclude files.
‡check-mailmap Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.
‡check-ref-format Ensures that a reference name is well formed.
‡column Display data in columns.
‡credential Retrieve and store user credentials.
‡credential-cache Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.
‡credential-store Helper to store credentials on disk.
‡fmt-merge-msg Produce a merge commit message.
‡interpret-trailers help add structured information into commit messages.
‡mailinfo Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.
‡mailsplit Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
‡merge-one-file The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.
git-patch-id Compute unique ID for a patch.
‡sh-i18n Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.
‡sh-setup Common Git shell script setup code.
‡stripspace Remove unnecessary whitespace.


Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like this:

           # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.

           ; core variables
                   ; Don't trust file modes
                   filemode = false

           ; user identity
                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
                   email = ""

Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
    name = Dennis German
    email =
    recentrepo = /Volumes/DATA/dgerman/Documents/computerStuff/onion/gitRepo
[filter "lfs"]
    clean = git-lfs clean -- %f
    smudge = git-lfs smudge -- %f
    process = git-lfs filter-process
    required = true


object Indicates the object name for any type of object.
blob Indicates a blob object name.
tree Indicates a tree object name.
commit Indicates a commit object name.
tree-ish Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a tree-ish argument ultimately wants to operate on a tree object but automatically dereferences commit and tag objects that point at a tree.
commit-ish Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a commit-ish argument ultimately wants to operate on a commit object but automatically dereferences tag objects that point at a commit.
type Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob, tree, commit, or tag.
file Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.


Any Git command accepting any object can also use the following symbolic notation:

HEAD indicates the head of the current branch. tag a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/tag reference). head a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/head reference). For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).


see the gitrepository-layout(5) document. Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook. Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the $GIT_DIR. TERMINOLOGY see gitglossary(7).


Various Git commands use the following environment variables:

   The Git Repository These apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is worth noting that they may be used/overridden
       by SCMS sitting above Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.

       GIT_INDEX_FILE allows the specification of an alternate index file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.  
       GIT_INDEX_VERSION variable allows the specification of an index version for new repositories. It won't affect
           existing index files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-index(1) for more information.

       GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY If the object storage directory is specified via variable then the sha1 directories are created
           underneath - otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

       GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be archived into shared, read-only directories. This
           variable specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git object directories which can be used
           to search for Git objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.

       If GIT_DIR is set then it specifies a path to use instead of the default .git for the
           base of the repository. The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.

       GIT_WORK_TREE Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be controlled by the --work-tree command-line option
           and the core.worktree configuration variable.

       GIT_NAMESPACE Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The --namespace command-line option also sets this value.  
           This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it is a list of directories that Git should not
           chdir up into while looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding slow-loading network directories).
           It will not exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
           Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that might be present in order to
           compare them with the current directory. However, if even this access is slow, you can add an empty entry to the
           list to tell Git that the subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,

           When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository directory, Git tries to find such a directory in
           the parent directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it does not cross filesystem
           boundaries. Set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries. Like
           GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command

       GIT_COMMON_DIR If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
           instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and
           git-worktree(1) for details. This variable has lower precedence than other path variables such as

           see git-commit-tree

   Git Diffs
           Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of context lines shown when a unified diff is
           created. This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the Git diff command line.

           When GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program named by it is called, instead of the diff
           invocation described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7

               path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode


           are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of old|new,

           are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,

           are the octal representation of the file modes.

           The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g.  new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.
           old-file when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the index).  GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should
           not worry about unlinking the temporary file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.

           For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1 parameter, path.

           For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, , GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.

           A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.

           The total number of paths.

       GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge 
       GIT_PAGER overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not
           launch a pager. See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).

       GIT_EDITOR overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive
           mode, an editor is to be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-config(1).

           If either of these is set then git fetch and git push will use the specified command
           instead of ssh when they need to connect to a remote system. The command will be given exactly two or four
           arguments: the username@host (or just host) from the URL and the shell command to execute on that remote system,
           optionally preceded by -p (literally) and the port from the URL when it specifies something other than the
           default SSH port.

           $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted by the shell, which allows additional
           arguments to be included.  $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which can be a wrapper
           shell script, if additional arguments are needed).

           Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your personal .ssh/config file. consult
           your ssh documentation for further details.

           If set, then Git commands which need to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for
           HTTP or IMAP authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument and read the
           password from its STDOUT. See also the core.askPass option in git-config(1).

       GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT If set to 0, git will not prompt on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).

           Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This 
           can be used along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable environment for a picky script, or you
           can set it temporarily to avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone with sufficient
           permissions to fix it.

           If set to "1", then commands such as git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list,
           git log, git check-attr and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
           flushed. If set to "0", the output of these commands will be done using completely buffered
           I/O. If is not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on
           whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.

       GIT_TRACE Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in command execution and external command execution.

           If set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.

           If set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret
           this value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this file descriptor.

           if set to an absolute path (starting with a / character), Git will interpret this
           as a file path and will try to write the trace messages into it.

           Unsetting , or setting it to empty, "0" or "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

           Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each access, the pack file name and an offset in the
           pack is recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given program. This can help with debugging object
           negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK" (but see
           GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
           verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
           GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.

           Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of clones and fetches.

           Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current working directory after Git has completed its
           setup phase. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

           Setting to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For
           example, running GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits that touch the path *.c, not
           any paths that the glob *.c matches. You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g., paths
           previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output, etc).

       GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS Setting to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).  
       GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS Setting to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).

       GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS Setting to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as case-insensitive.

           When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
           typically the name of the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the
           ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name to
           this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.

           If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted
           repository, this does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some operations in the
           presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable automatically when performing destructive operations like git-
           prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure an operation
           has touched every ref (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).

           If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is
           useful to restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted repository. Any protocol not mentioned
           will be disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not set at all, all
           protocols are enabled. The protocol names currently used by git are:

           o   file: any local file-based path (including file:// URLs, or local paths)

           o   git: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP connection (or proxy, if configured)

           o   ssh: git over ssh (including host:path syntax, git+ssh://, etc).

           o   rsync: git over rsync

           o   http: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http". Note that this does not include https; if you want
               both, you should specify both as http:https.

           o   any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use hg to allow the git-remote-hg helper)


More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[2] and gitcore- tutorial(7). A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git" subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other things, a compressed object database representing the complete history of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such as tags and branch heads. The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree and some number of parent commits. The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one parent represent merges of independent lines of development. All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique. The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this purpose. When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files". Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD contains the name of the currently checked-out branch. The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the content stored in the index. The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages") for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.

Closing a pluu request

FURTHER DOCUMENTATION See the references in the "description" section to get started using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user. The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7) both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture. See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows. See also the howto[3] documents for some useful examples. The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[4]. Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7). AUTHORS Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list[5]. gives you a more complete list of contributors. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1) and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the project. REPORTING BUGS Report bugs to the Git mailing list[5] where the development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be subscribed to the list to send a message there. SEE ALSO gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7), gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's Manual[1], gitworkflows(7) GIT Part of the git(1) suite NOTES 1. Git User's Manual git-htmldocs/user-manual.html 2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual git-htmldocs/user-manual.html#git-concepts 3. howto git-htmldocs/howto-index.html 4. Git API documentation git-htmldocs/technical/api-index.html 5. See git workflow