the stupid content tracker
git [--version] [--help] [-C path [-c name value
[--exec-path[=path]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
[-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=path] [--work-tree=path] [--namespace=name]
tersified from the man page and examples added by DGG
Distributed revision control system that provides both
high-level operations and full access to internals.
See gittutorial(7) to get started, then giteveryday(7) for a useful minimum set of commands.
The Git User's Manual has a more in-depth introduction.
The real docs
We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level ("plumbing") commands.
HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)
We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some ancillary user utilities.
Main porcelain commands
Add file contents to the index.
Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.
Create an archive of files from a named tree.
Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.
List, create, or delete branches.
Move objects and refs by archive.
Switch branches or restore working tree files.
Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.
Graphical alternative to git-commit.
Remove untracked files from the working tree.
Clone a repository into a new directory.
Record changes to the repository.
Describe a commit using the most recent tag reachable from it.
Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
Download objects and refs from another repository.
Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.
Print lines matching a pattern.
A portable graphical interface to Git.
Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.
Show commit logs.
Join two or more development histories together.
Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
Add or inspect object notes.
Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.
Update remote refs along with associated objects.
Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head.
Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
Revert some existing commits.
Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
Summarize git log output.
Show various types of objects.
Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.
Show the working tree status.
Initialize, update or inspect submodules.
Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.
Manage multiple working trees.
The Git repository browser.
Get and set repository or global options.
Git data exporter.
Backend for fast Git data importers.
Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.
Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.
Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.
Manage reflog information.
Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
Manage set of tracked repositories.
Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.
Annotate file lines with commit information.
Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.
Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.
Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
Show changes using common diff tools.
Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.
Display help information about Git.
Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
Show three-way merge without touching index.
Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
Pick out and massage parameters.
Show branches and their commits.
Check the GPG signature of commits.
Check the GPG signature of tags.
Show logs with difference each commit introduces.
Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).
Interacting with Others
These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people via patch over e-mail.
Import an Arch repository into Git.
Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
A CVS server emulator for Git.
Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.
Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.
Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
Generates a summary of pending changes.
Send a collection of patches as emails.
Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.
LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (PLUMBING)
Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support development of
alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-index(1) and git-read-
The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot
more stable than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for scripted use. The interface to
Porcelain commands on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.
The following description divides the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in the repository,
index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move objects and
references between repositories.
Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.
Copy files from the index to the working tree.
Create a new commit object.
Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.
Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.
Run a three-way file merge.
Run a merge for files needing merging.
Creates a tag object.
Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
Create a packed archive of objects.
Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
Reads tree information into the index.
Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.
Unpack objects from a packed archive.
Register file contents in the working tree to the index.
Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
Create a tree object from the current index.
Provide content or type and size information for repository objects.
Compares files in the working tree and the index.
Compare a tree to the working tree or index.
Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
Output information on each ref.
Show information about files in the index and the working tree.
List references in a remote repository.
List the contents of a tree object.
Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
Find symbolic names for given revs.
Find redundant pack files.
Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
Show packed archive index.
List references in a local repository.
Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
Show a Git logical variable.
Validate packed Git archive files.
In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the working tree.
A really simple server for Git repositories.
Receive missing objects from another repository.
Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.
Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.
Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.
The following are helper commands used by the above; end users typically do not use them directly.
Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.
Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.
Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.
Receive what is pushed into the repository.
Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.
Send archive back to git-archive.
Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.
Internal helper commands
These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users typically do not use them directly.
Display gitattributes information.
Debug gitignore / exclude files.
Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.
Ensures that a reference name is well formed.
Display data in columns.
Retrieve and store user credentials.
Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.
Helper to store credentials on disk.
Produce a merge commit message.
help add structured information into commit messages.
Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.
Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.
Compute unique ID for a patch.
Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.
Common Git shell script setup code.
Remove unnecessary whitespace.
Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per repository and are per user. Such a configuration
file may look like this:
# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
; core variables
; Don't trust file modes
filemode = false
; user identity
name = "Junio C Hamano"
email = "firstname.lastname@example.org"
Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a
list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
Indicates the object name for any type of object.
Indicates a blob object name.
Indicates a tree object name.
Indicates a commit object name.
Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a tree-ish argument ultimately wants to
operate on a tree object but automatically dereferences commit and tag objects that point at a tree.
Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a commit-ish argument ultimately wants to operate
on a commit object but automatically dereferences tag objects that point at a commit.
Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob, tree, commit, or tag.
Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
Any Git command accepting any object can also use the following symbolic notation:
indicates the head of the current branch.
a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/tag reference).
a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/head reference).
For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).
Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.
Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.
Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the $GIT_DIR.
Please see gitglossary(7).
Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
The Git Repository
These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is worth noting that they may be used/overridden
by SCMS sitting above Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
This environment allows the specification of an alternate index file. If not specified, the default of
$GIT_DIR/index is used.
This environment variable allows the specification of an index version for new repositories. It won't affect
existing index files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-index(1) for more
If the object storage directory is specified via this environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
underneath - otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.
Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be archived into shared, read-only directories. This
variable specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git object directories which can be used
to search for Git objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path to use instead of the default .git for the
base of the repository. The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.
Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be controlled by the --work-tree command-line option
and the core.worktree configuration variable.
Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The --namespace command-line option also sets this
This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it is a list of directories that Git should not
chdir up into while looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding slow-loading network directories).
It will not exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that might be present in order to
compare them with the current directory. However, if even this access is slow, you can add an empty entry to the
list to tell Git that the subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,
When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository directory, Git tries to find such a directory in
the parent directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it does not cross filesystem
boundaries. This environment variable can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries. Like
GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command
If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and
git-worktree(1) for details. This variable has lower precedence than other path variables such as
GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE,
Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of context lines shown when a unified diff is
created. This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the Git diff command line.
When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program named by it is called, instead of the diff
invocation described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7
path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of old|new,
are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
are the octal representation of the file modes.
The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g. new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.
old-file when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. old-file in the index). GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should
not worry about unlinking the temporary file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.
For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1 parameter, path.
For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and
GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.
A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
The total number of paths.
A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See
This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not
launch a pager. See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).
This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive
mode, an editor is to be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-config(1).
If either of these environment variables is set then git fetch and git push will use the specified command
instead of ssh when they need to connect to a remote system. The command will be given exactly two or four
arguments: the username@host (or just host) from the URL and the shell command to execute on that remote system,
optionally preceded by -p (literally) and the port from the URL when it specifies something other than the
default SSH port.
$GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted by the shell, which allows additional
arguments to be included. $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which can be a wrapper
shell script, if additional arguments are needed).
Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your personal .ssh/config file. Please consult
your ssh documentation for further details.
If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for
HTTP or IMAP authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument and read the
password from its STDOUT. See also the core.askPass option in git-config(1).
If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not prompt on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP
Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable
can be used along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable environment for a picky script, or you
can set it temporarily to avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone with sufficient
permissions to fix it.
If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list,
git log, git check-attr and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
flushed. If this variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done using completely buffered
I/O. If this environment variable is not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on
whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in command execution and external command execution.
If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed
If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret
this value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this file descriptor.
Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting with a / character), Git will interpret this
as a file path and will try to write the trace messages into it.
Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each access, the pack file name and an offset in the
pack is recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related performance problems. See GIT_TRACE
for available trace output options.
Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given program. This can help with debugging object
negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK" (but see
GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of clones and fetches.
Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for
available trace output options.
Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current working directory after Git has completed its
setup phase. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for
available trace output options.
Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For
example, running GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits that touch the path *.c, not
any paths that the glob *.c matches. You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g., paths
previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output, etc).
Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as case-insensitive.
When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
typically the name of the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the
ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name to
this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the end user, to be recorded in the body of the
If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted
repository, this does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some operations in the
presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable automatically when performing destructive operations like git-
prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure an operation
has touched every ref (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).
If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is
useful to restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted repository. Any protocol not mentioned
will be disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not set at all, all
protocols are enabled. The protocol names currently used by git are:
o file: any local file-based path (including file:// URLs, or local paths)
o git: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP connection (or proxy, if configured)
o ssh: git over ssh (including host:path syntax, git+ssh://, etc).
o rsync: git over rsync
o http: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http". Note that this does not include https; if you want
both, you should specify both as http:https.
o any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use hg to allow the git-remote-hg helper)
More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter of the user-manual and gitcore-
A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git" subdirectory at the top level. The .git
directory contains, among other things, a compressed object database representing the complete history of the
project, an "index" file which links that history to the current contents of the working tree, and named pointers
into that history such as tags and branch heads.
The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which hold file data; trees, which point to blobs
and other trees to build up directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree and some number
of parent commits.
The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or "version", represents a step in the project's
history, and each parent represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one parent represent
merges of independent lines of development.
All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names
are globally unique. The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing just that commit. A
fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this purpose.
When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for efficiency may later be compressed together into
Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the
name of another ref. Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most recent commit (or
"head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref
named HEAD contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each path, a blob object and a set of attributes.
The blob object represents the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The attributes (last
modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may be updated with new content, and new commits
may be created from the content stored in the index.
The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages") for a given pathname. These stages are used
to hold the various unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
See the references in the "description" section to get started using Git. The following is probably more detail than
necessary for a first-time user.
The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual and gitcore-tutorial(7) both provide introductions to the underlying
See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.
See also the howto documents for some useful examples.
The internals are documented in the Git API documentation.
Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).
Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come
from the Git mailing list email@example.com. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary gives you a
more complete list of contributors.
If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1) and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for
specific parts of the project.
Report bugs to the Git mailing list firstname.lastname@example.org where the development and maintenance is primarily
done. You do not have to be subscribed to the list to send a message there.
gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7), gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7),
gitcli(7), The Git User's Manual, gitworkflows(7)
Part of the git(1) suite
1. Git User's Manual
2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
4. Git API documentation
--version Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.
--help Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands. If the option --all or -a is given then all
available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the manual page for that
Other options are available to control how the manual page is displayed. See git-help(1) for more information,
because git --help ... is converted internally into git help ....
Run as if git was started in path instead of the current working directory. When multiple -C options are
given, each subsequent non-absolute -C path is interpreted relative to the preceding -C path.
This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir and --work-tree in that their interpretations
of the path names would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C option. For example the
following invocations are equivalent:
git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will override values from configuration files.
The name is expected in the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by dots).
Note that omitting the = in git -c foo.bar ... is allowed and sets foo.bar to the boolean true value (just like
[foo]bar would in a config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like git -c foo.bar= ...) sets
foo.bar to the empty string.
Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
environment variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting and then exit.
--html-path output the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML documentation is installed and exit.
--man-path output the manpath exit.
--info-path output the path where the Info files are installed and exit.
--paginate Pipe all output to
less (or $PAGER) if standard output is a terminal. overrides the pager.cmd
configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).
--no-pager Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
--git-dir=path can also be controlled by setting $GIT_DIR, an absolute path or relative path to current working directory.
Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a path relative to the current working
directory. This can also be controlled by setting $GIT_WORK_TREE and
core.worktree configuration variable
(see core.worktree in git-config(1) for a more detailed discussion).
Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details. Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE
--bare Treat the repository as a bare repository. If $GIT_DIR is not set, it is set to the current working directory.
--no-replace-objects Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-replace(1) for more information.
Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic), equivalent to setting $GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS to 1.
Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. Equivalent to setting $GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS to 1.
Disabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"
Add "literal" magic to all pathspec, equivalent to setting $GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS to 1.
Enabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(glob)"
--icase-pathspecs Add "icase" magic to all pathspec, equivalent to setting $GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS to 1.
die.net git workflow