gdb gnu debugger

running breakpoints
tracepoints Tracing without stopping the program
data Examining files examining files
stack status
aliases of other commands support Support facilities
user-defined User-defined commands
help commandfor full documentation. help class help all
apropos word to search for commands related to "word". internals Maintenance commands
obscure Obscure features

unambiguous command name abbreviations are allowed

Examine memory
fmt [count] [format] [size] .
  • count for repeat Default: 1
  • format: x hex, decimal, unsigned decimal, tinary, float, address, instruction, char and string.octal
    Default: last used
  • size: byte, halfword, word, giant, 8 bytes. Default: last used
  • address: expression . Default: previously displayed
address is following last thing examined or printed
aliases
ni NextInstruction : Step one instruction
si one instruction exactly
rc ReverseContinue: run it in reverse
rni ReverseNextInstruction: backward one instruction
rsi ReverseSingleInstruction:backward exactly one instruction
stepping
tp tracepoint at specified line or function
tty terminal for future runs of program being debugged
where Print backtrace of all stack frames
ws single-stepping behavior at a tracepoint
breakpoints     TOC
clear breakpoint at specified line or function
awatch for an expression Set a watchpoint for an expression.
awatch [-l|-location] EXPRESSION
stops execution whenever the value of an expression is accessed
If -l or -location is given, this evaluates EXPRESSION and watches the memory to which it refers.
break at a line or function
commands be executed when a breakpoint is hit
break-range for an address range
condition Specify breakpoint number N to break only if COND is true
delete breakpoints some breakpoints or auto-display expressions
enable breakpoints
enable breakpoints delete Enable breakpoints and delete when hit
enable breakpoints once Enable breakpoints for one hit
rbreak breakpoint for all functions matching REGEXP
save breakpoints Save current breakpoint definitions as a script
disable some breakpoints
disable breakpoints some breakpoints
save Save breakpoint definitions as a script
delete checkpoint
delete display Cancel some expressions to be displayed when program stops
disable display expressions to be displayed when program stops
delete bookmark
disable pretty-printer
disable tracepoints
enable Enable some breakpoints
enable delete breakpoints and delete when hit
enable display Enable some expressions to be displayed when program stops
enable once breakpoints for one hit
enable tracepoints Enable specified tracepoints
delete tracepoints
delete tvariable one or more trace state variables
ftrace fast tracepoint at specified line or function
hbreak hardware assisted breakpoint
ignore ignore-count of breakpoint number N to COUNT
rwatch read watchpoint for an expression
save tracepoints Save current tracepoint definitions as a script
skip Ignore function while stepping
skip function Ignore a function while stepping
skip delete Delete skip entries
skip disable Disable skip entries
skip enable Enable skip entries
skip file Ignore a file while stepping
strace a static tracepoint at specified line
tbreak a temporary breakpoint
enable pretty-printer
save gdb-index Save a gdb-index file
disable mem
delete mem memory region
enable mem Enable memory region
catch catch events
[t]catch [temporary]
[t]catch catch exception
[t]catch exec calls to exec
[t]catch fork calls to fork
[t]catch syscall by their names and/or numbers
[t]catch throw Catch an exception
[t]catch vfork Catch calls to vfork
[t]catch assert failed Ada assertions
[t]catch exception Ada exceptions
thbreak a temporary hardware assisted breakpoint
trace a tracepoint at specified line or function
watch a watchpoint for an expression
data     TOC
call a function
disassemble a specified section of memory
display value of expression EXP each time the program stops
append target code/data to a local file
append binary target code/data to a raw binary file
append binary memory to a rbf
append binary value of an expression to a rbf
append value of an expression to a rbf
append memory to a rbf
dump Dump target code/data to a local file
dump binary Write target code/data to a rbf
dump binary memory Write contents of memory to a rbf
dump binary value Write the value of an expression to a rbf
dump ihex Write target code/data to an intel hex file
dump ihex memory Write contents of memory to an ihex file
dump ihex value Write the value of an expression to an ihex file
dump memory Write contents of memory to a rbf
dump srec Write target code/data to an srec file
dump srec memory Write contents of memory to an srec file
dump srec value Write the value of an expression to an srec file
dump tekhex Write target code/data to a tekhex file
dump tekhex memory Write contents of memory to a tekhex file
dump tekhex value Write the value of an expression to a tekhex file
dump value Write the value of an expression to a rbf
find Search memory for a sequence of bytes
inspect
print
Print value of expression EXP
print-object Ask an Objective-C object to print itself
printf Printf "printf format string"
ptype Print definition of type TYPE
init-if-undefined Initialize a convenience variable if necessary
mem Define attributes for memory region or reset memory region handling to
output Like "print" but don't put in value history and don't print newline
restore Restore the contents of FILE to target memory
set Evaluate expression EXP and assign result to variable VAR
set ada Prefix command for changing Ada-specfic settings
set ada trust-PAD-over-XVS Enable or disable an optimization trusting PAD types over XVS types
set annotate annotation_level
set architecture architecture of target
set args argument list to give program being debugged when it is started
set arm Various ARM-specific commands
set arm abi the ABI
set arm apcs32 usage of ARM 32-bit mode
set arm disassembler the disassembly style
set arm fallback-mode the mode assumed when symbols are unavailable
set arm force-mode the mode assumed even when symbols are available
set arm fpu the floating point type
set auto-load-scripts the debugger's behaviour regarding auto-loaded scripts
set auto-solib-add autoloading of shared library symbols
set backtrace backtrace specific variables
set backtrace limit an upper bound on the number of backtrace levels
set backtrace past-entry whether backtraces should continue past the entry point of a program
set backtrace past-main whether backtraces should continue past "main"
set basenames-may-differ whether a source file may have multiple base names
set breakpoint Breakpoint specific settings
set breakpoint always-inserted mode for inserting breakpoints
set breakpoint auto-hw automatic usage of hardware breakpoints
set breakpoint pending debugger's behavior regarding pending breakpoints
set can-use-hw-watchpoints debugger's willingness to use watchpoint hardware
set case-sensitive case sensitivity in name search
set charset the host and target character sets
set check the status of the type/range checker
set check range range checking
set check type type checking
set circular-trace-buffer target's use of circular trace buffer
set coerce-float-to-double coercion of floats to doubles when calling functions
set complaints max number of complaints about incorrect symbols
set confirm whether to confirm potentially dangerous operations
set cp-abi the ABI used for inspecting C++ objects
set data-directory GDB's data directory
set dcache Use this command to set number of lines in dcache and line-size
set dcache line-size dcache line size in bytes (must be power of 2)
set dcache size number of dcache lines
set debug Generic command for setting gdb debugging flags
set debug arch architecture debugging
set debug arm ARM debugging
set debug check-physname cross-checking of "physname" code against demangler
set debug displaced displaced stepping debugging
set debug dwarf2-die debugging of the dwarf2 DIE reader
set debug entry-values entry values and tail call frames debugging
set debug expression expression debugging
set debug frame frame debugging
set debug infrun inferior debugging
set debug jit JIT debugging
set debug libthread-db libthread-db debugging
set debug lin-lwp debugging of GNU/Linux lwp module
set debug observer observer debugging
set debug overload debugging of C++ overloading
set debug parser parser debugging
set debug record debugging of record/replay feature
set debug remote debugging of remote protocol
set debug serial serial debugging
set debug target target debugging
set debug timestamp timestamping of debugging messages
set debug xml XML parser debugging
set debug-file-directory the directories where separate debug symbols are searched for
set debugvarobj varobj debugging
set default-collect the list of expressions to collect by default
set demangle-style the current C++ demangling style
set detach-on-fork whether gdb will detach the child of a fork
set directories the search path for finding source files
set disable-randomization disabling of debuggee's virtual address space randomization
set disassemble-next-line whether to disassemble next source line or insn when execution stops
set disconnected-tracing whether tracing continues after GDB disconnects
set displaced-stepping debugger's willingness to use displaced stepping
set editing editing of command lines as they are typed
set endian endianness of target
set environment environment variable value to give the program
set exec-direction direction of execution
set exec-done-display notification of completion for asynchronous execution commands
set exec-wrapper a wrapper for running programs
set extended-prompt the extended prompt
set extension-language mapping between filename extension and source language
set follow-exec-mode debugger response to a program call of exec
set follow-fork-mode debugger response to a program call of fork or vfork
set gnutarget the current BFD target
set height number of lines gdb thinks are in a page
set history Generic command for setting command history parameters
set history expansion history expansion on command input
set history filename the filename in which to record the command history
set history save saving of the history record on exit
set history size the size of the command history
set host-charset the host character set
set inferior-tty terminal for future runs of program being debugged
set input-radix default input radix for entering numbers
set interactive-mode whether GDB's standard input is a terminal
set language the current source language
set libthread-db-search-path search path for libthread_db
set listsize number of source lines gdb will list by default
set logging logging options
set logging file the current logfile
set logging off Disable logging
set logging on Enable logging
set logging overwrite whether logging overwrites or appends to the log file
set logging redirect the logging output mode
set max-user-call-depth the max call depth for user-defined commands
set may-insert-breakpoints permission to insert breakpoints in the target
set may-insert-fast-tracepoints permission to insert fast tracepoints in the target
set may-insert-tracepoints permission to insert tracepoints in the target
set may-interrupt permission to interrupt or signal the target
set may-write-memory permission to write into target memory
set may-write-registers permission to write into registers
set mem Memory regions settings
set mem inaccessible-by-default handling of unknown memory regions
set multiple-symbols the debugger behavior when more than one symbol are possible matches
set non-stop whether gdb controls the inferior in non-stop mode
set observer whether gdb controls the inferior in observer mode
set opaque-type-resolution resolution of opaque struct/class/union types (if set before loading symbols)
set osabi OS ABI of target
set output-radix default output radix for printing of values
set overload-resolution overload resolution in evaluating C++ functions
set pagination state of pagination
set print Generic command for setting how things print
set print address printing of addresses
set print array prettyprinting of arrays
set print array-indexes printing of array indexes
set print asm-demangle demangling of C++/ObjC names in disassembly listings
set print demangle demangling of encoded C++/ObjC names when displaying symbols
set print elements limit on string chars or array elements to print
set print entry-values printing of function arguments at function entry
set print frame-arguments printing of non-scalar frame arguments
set print inferior-events printing of inferior events (e
set print max-symbolic-offset the largest offset that will be printed in form
set print null-stop printing of char arrays to stop at first null char
set print object printing of object's derived type based on vtable info
set print pascal_static-members printing of pascal static members
set print pretty prettyprinting of structures
set print repeats threshold for repeated print elements
set print sevenbit-strings printing of 8-bit characters in strings as \nnn
set print static-members printing of C++ static members
set print symbol-filename printing of source filename and line number with
set print thread-events printing of thread events (such as thread start and exit)
set print union printing of unions interior to structures
set print vtbl printing of C++ virtual function tables
set prompt
set python Prefix for python preference settings
set python print-stack mode for Python stack dump on error
set radix default input and output number radices
set record record options
set record insn-number-max record/replay buffer limit
set record memory-query whether query if PREC cannot record memory change of next instruction
set record stop-at-limit whether record/replay stops when record/replay buffer becomes full
set remote Remote protocol specific variables
P-packet P' (set-register) packet
TracepointSource-packet TracepointSource' (TracepointSource) packet
X-packet X' (binary-download) packet
Z-packet Z' packets
access-watchpoint-packet Z4' (access-watchpoint) packet
allow-packet QAllow' (allow) packet
attach-packet vAttach' (attach) packet
binary-download-packet X' (binary-download) packet
conditional-tracepoints-packet ConditionalTracepoints' (conditional-tracepoints) packet
disable-randomization-packet QDisableRandomization' (disable-randomization) packet
exec-file the remote pathname for "run"
fast-tracepoints-packet FastTracepoints' (fast-tracepoints) packet
fetch-register-packet p' (fetch-register) packet
get-thread-information-block-address-packet qGetTIBAddr' (get-thread-information-block-address) packet
get-thread-local-storage-address-packet qGetTLSAddr' (get-thread-local-storage-address) packet
hardware-breakpoint-limit the maximum number of target hardware breakpoints
hardware-breakpoint-packet Z1' (hardware-breakpoint) packet
hardware-watchpoint-length-limit the maximum length (in bytes) of a target hardware watchpoint
hardware-watchpoint-limit the maximum number of target hardware watchpoints
hostio-close-packet vFile:close' (hostio-close) packet
hostio-open-packet vFile:open' (hostio-open) packet
hostio-pread-packet vFile:pread' (hostio-pread) packet
hostio-pwrite-packet vFile:pwrite' (hostio-pwrite) packet
hostio-unlink-packet vFile:unlink' (hostio-unlink) packet
install-in-trace-packet InstallInTrace' (install-in-trace) packet
interrupt-on-connect whether interrupt-sequence is sent to remote target when gdb connects to
interrupt-sequence interrupt sequence to remote target
kill-packet vKill' (kill) packet
library-info-packet qXfer:libraries:read' (library-info) packet
library-info-svr4-packet qXfer:libraries-svr4:read' (library-info-svr4) packet
memory-map-packet qXfer:memory-map:read' (memory-map) packet
memory-read-packet-size the maximum number of bytes per memory-read packet
memory-write-packet-size the maximum number of bytes per memory-write packet
noack-packet QStartNoAckMode' (noack) packet
osdata-packet qXfer:osdata:read' (osdata) packet
p-packet p' (fetch-register) packet
pass-signals-packet QPassSignals' (pass-signals) packet
query-attached-packet qAttached' (query-attached) packet
read-aux-vector-packet qXfer:auxv:read' (read-aux-vector) packet
read-fdpic-loadmap-packet qXfer:fdpic:read' (read-fdpic-loadmap) packet
read-sdata-object-packet qXfer:statictrace:read' (read-sdata-object) packet
read-siginfo-object-packet qXfer:siginfo:read' (read-siginfo-object) packet
read-spu-object-packet qXfer:spu:read' (read-spu-object) packet
read-watchpoint-packet Z3' (read-watchpoint) packet
reverse-continue-packet bc' (reverse-continue) packet
reverse-step-packet bs' (reverse-step) packet
run-packet vRun' (run) packet
search-memory-packet qSearch:memory' (search-memory) packet
set-register-packet P' (set-register) packet
software-breakpoint-packet Z0' (software-breakpoint) packet
static-tracepoints-packet StaticTracepoints' (static-tracepoints) packet
supported-packets-packet qSupported' (supported-packets) packet
symbol-lookup-packet qSymbol' (symbol-lookup) packet
system-call-allowed if the host system(3) call is allowed for the target
target-features-packet qXfer:features:read' (target-features) packet
threads-packet qXfer:threads:read' (threads) packet
traceframe-info-packet qXfer:trace-frame-info:read' (traceframe-info) packet
verbose-resume-packet vCont' (verbose-resume) packet
write-siginfo-object-packet qXfer:siginfo:write' (write-siginfo-object) packet
write-spu-object-packet qXfer:spu:write' (write-spu-object) packet
write-watchpoint-packet Z2' (write-watchpoint) packet
 
addresssize the maximum size of the address (in bits) in a memory packet
baud baud rate for remote serial I/O
break whether to send break if interrupted
cache cache use for remote targets
flow use of hardware flow control for remote serial I/O
logbase numerical base for remote session logging
logfile filename for remote session recording
timeout timeout limit to wait for target to respond
writesize the maximum number of bytes per memory write packet (deprecated)
set
schedule-multiple mode for resuming threads of all processes
scheduler-locking mode for locking scheduler during execution
script-extension mode for script filename extension recognition
serial default serial/parallel port configuration
solib-absolute-prefix an alternate system root
solib-search-path the search path for loading non-absolute shared library symbol files
stack-cache cache use for stack access
step-mode mode of the step operation
stop-on-solib-events stopping for shared library events
substitute-path Usage: set substitute-path FROM TO
symbol-reloading dynamic symbol table reloading multiple times in one run
sysroot an alternate system root
target-async whether gdb controls the inferior in asynchronous mode
target-charset the target character set
target-file-system-kind assumed file system kind for target reported file names
target-wide-charset the target wide character set
tcp TCP protocol specific variables
tcp auto-retry auto-retry on socket connect
tcp connect-timeout timeout limit for socket connection
tdesc target description specific variables
tdesc filename the file to read for an XML target description
trace-commands tracing of GDB CLI commands
trace-notes notes string to use for current and future trace runs
trace-stop-notes notes string to use for future tstop commands
trace-user the user name to use for current and future trace runs
trust-readonly-sections mode for reading from readonly sections
tui TUI configuration variables
tui active-border-mode the attribute mode to use for the active TUI window border
tui border-kind the kind of border for TUI windows
tui border-mode the attribute mode to use for the TUI window borders
unwind-on-terminating-exception unwinding of stack if std::terminate is called while in call dummy
unwindonsignal unwinding of stack if a signal is received while in a call dummy
variable Evaluate expression EXP and assign result to variable VAR
verbose verbosity
watchdog watchdog timer
width number of characters gdb thinks are in a line
write writing into executable and core files
undisplay Cancel some expressions to be displayed when program stops
whatis Print data type of expression EXP
x Examine memory: x/FMT ADDRESS
files     TOC
add-symbol-file Load symbols from FILE
add-symbol-file-from-memory Load the symbols out of memory from a dynamically loaded object file
cd working directory to DIR for debugger and program being debugged
core-file Use FILE as core dump for examining memory and registers
directory Add directory DIR to beginning of search path for source files
edit Edit specified file or function
exec-file Use FILE as program for getting contents of pure memory
file Use FILE as program to be debugged
forward-search Search for regular expression (see regex(3)) from last line listed
generate-core-file Save a core file with the current state of the debugged process
list List specified function or line
load Dynamically load FILE into the running program
nosharedlibrary Unload all shared object library symbols
path Add directory DIR(s) to beginning of search path for object files
pwd Print working directory
remote Manipulate files on the remote system
remote delete Delete a remote file
remote get Copy a remote file to the local system
remote put Copy a local file to the remote system
reverse-search Search backward for regular expression (see regex(3)) from last line listed
search Search for regular expression (see regex(3)) from last line listed
section Change the base address of section SECTION of the exec file to ADDR
sharedlibrary Load shared object library symbols for files matching REGEXP
symbol-file Load symbol table from executable file FILE
internals     TOC
flushregs Force gdb to flush its register cache (maintainer command)
maintenance Commands for use by GDB maintainers
m agent Translate an expression into remote agent bytecode for tracing
m agent-eval Translate an expression into remote agent bytecode for evaluation
m check-symtabs Check consistency of psymtabs and symtabs
m cplus C++ maintenance commands
m cplus first_component Print the first class/namespace component of NAME
m cplus namespace Deprecated placeholder for removed functionality
m demangle Demangle a C++/ObjC mangled name
m deprecate Deprecate a command
m dump-me Get fatal error; make debugger dump its core
m info Commands for showing internal info about the program being debugged
m info breakpoints Status of all breakpoints
m info program-spaces Info about currently known program spaces
m info psymtabs List the partial symbol tables for all object files
m info sections List the BFD sections of the exec and core files
m info symtabs List the full symbol tables for all object files
m internal-error Give GDB an internal error
m internal-warning Give GDB an internal warning
m packet Send an arbitrary packet to a remote target
m print Maintenance command for printing GDB internal state
m print architecture Print the internal architecture configuration
m print c-tdesc Print the current target description as a C source file
m print cooked-registers Print the internal register configuration including cooked values
m print dummy-frames Print the contents of the internal dummy-frame stack
m print msymbols Print dump of current minimal symbol definitions
m print objfiles Print dump of current object file definitions
m print psymbols Print dump of current partial symbol definitions
m print raw-registers Print the internal register configuration including raw values
m print reggroups Print the internal register group names
m print register-groups Print the internal register configuration including each register's group
m print registers Print the internal register configuration
m print remote-registers Print the internal register configuration including each register's
m print statistics Print statistics about internal gdb state
m print symbols Print dump of current symbol definitions
m print target-stack Print the name of each layer of the internal target stack
m print type Print a type chain for a given symbol
m set GDB internal variables used by the GDB maintainer
m set dwarf2 DWARF 2 specific variables
m set dwarf2 always-disassemble whether `info address' always disassembles DWARF expressions
m set dwarf2 max-cache-age the upper bound on the age of cached dwarf2 compilation units
m set internal-error Configure what GDB does when internal-error is detected
m set internal-error corefile whether GDB should create a core file of GDB when internal-error is detected
m set internal-error quit whether GDB should quit when an internal-error is detected
m set internal-warning Configure what GDB does when internal-warning is detected
m set internal-warning corefile whether GDB should create a core file of GDB when internal-warning is detected
m set internal-warning quit whether GDB should quit when an internal-warning is detected
m set profile internal profiling
m set python Prefix command for python maintenance settings
m set python print-stack Enable or disable printing of Python stack dump on error
m show GDB internal variables used by the GDB maintainer
m show dwarf2 DWARF 2 specific variables
m show dwarf2 always-disassemble whether `info address' always disassembles DWARF expressions
m show dwarf2 max-cache-age the upper bound on the age of cached dwarf2 compilation units
m show internal-error what GDB does when internal-error is detected
m show internal-error corefile create a core file of GDB when internal-error is detected
m show internal-error quit quit when an internal-error is detected
m show internal-warning what GDB does when internal-warning is detected
m show internal-warning corefile create a core file of GDB when internal-warning is detected
m show internal-warning quit quit when an internal-warning is detected
m show profile internal profiling
m show python Prefix command for python maintenance settings
m show python print-stack whether Python stack will be printed on error
m space the display of space usage
m time the display of time usage
m translate-address Translate a section name and address to a symbol
m undeprecate Undeprecate a command
obscure     TOC
checkpoint Fork a duplicate process (experimental)
compare-sections Compare section data on target to the exec file
complete List the completions for the rest of the line as a command
monitor Send a command to the remote monitor (remote targets only)
python Evaluate a Python command
record Abbreviated form of "target record" command
record delete Delete the rest of execution log and start recording it anew
record goto Restore the program to its state at instruction number N
record restore Restore the execution log from a file
record save Save the execution log to a file
record stop Stop the record/replay target
restart Restart : restore program context from a checkpoint
stop There is no `stop' command
running     TOC
advance Continue the program up to the given location
(same form as args for break command)
attach Attach to a process or file outside of GDB
continue Continue program being debugged
detach Detach a process or file previously attached
detach checkpoint Detach from a checkpoint (experimental)
detach inferiors Detach from inferior ID (or list of IDS)
disconnect Disconnect from a target
finish Execute until selected stack frame returns
handle Specify how to handle a signal
inferior Use this command to switch between inferiors
interrupt Interrupt the execution of the debugged program
jump Continue program being debugged at specified line or address
kill Kill execution of program being debugged
kill inferiors Kill inferior ID (or list of IDs)
next Step program
nexti Step one instruction
reverse-continue Continue program being debugged but run it in reverse
reverse-finish Execute backward until just before selected stack frame is called
reverse-next Step program backward
reverse-nexti Step backward one instruction
reverse-step Step program backward until it reaches the beginning of another source line
reverse-stepi Step backward exactly one instruction
run Start debugged program
signal Continue program giving it signal specified by the argument
start Run the debugged program until the beginning of the main procedure
step Step program until it reaches a different source line
stepi Step one instruction exactly
target Connect to a target machine or process
target child Unix child process (started by the "run" command)
target core Use a core file as a target
target exec Use an executable file as a target
target extended-remote Use a remote computer via a serial line
target multi-thread Threads and pthreads support
target record Log program while executing and replay execution from log
target record-core Log program while executing and replay execution from log
target remote Use a remote computer via a serial line
target tfile Use a trace file as a target
task Use this command to switch between Ada tasks
thread Use this command to switch between threads
thread apply Apply a command to a list of threads
thread apply all Apply a command to all threads
thread find Find threads that match a regular expression
thread name the current thread's name
until Execute until the program reaches a source line greater than the current
stack     TOC
bt Print backtrace of all stack frames
sho backtrace backtrace specific variables
sho backtrace limit the upper bound on the number of backtrace levels
sho backtrace past-entry whether backtraces should continue past the entry point of a program
sho backtrace past-main whether backtraces should continue past "main"
down Select and print stack frame called by this one
frame Select and print a stack frame
return Make selected stack frame return to its caller
select-frame Select a stack frame without printing anything
up Select and print stack frame that called this one
status     TOC
info
i address Describe where symbol SYM is stored
i all-registers
i args Argument variables of current stack frame
i auto-load-scripts Print the list of automatically loaded scripts
i auxv Display the inferior's auxiliary vector
i bookmarks
i breakpoints
i catch Exceptions that can be caught in the current stack frame
i checkpoints IDs of currently known checkpoints
i classes All Objective-C classes
i common Fortran COMMON
i dcache performance
i display Expressions to display when program stops
i extensions All filename extensions associated with a source language
i files targets and files ( libraries.)
i float ngpoint registars
i frame example:
Stack level 0, frame at 0xbefa040c:
 pc = 0x1951e in runtime.memhash8; saved pc = 0x658a2
 called by frame at 0xbefa040c
 Arglist at 0xbefa040c, args: 
 Locals at 0xbefa040c, Previous frame's sp is 0xbefa040c
i functions All function names
i handle debugger does when program gets various signals
Signal     Stop Print   
HUP        Yes   Yes Hangup
INT        Yes   Yes No      Interrupt (not passed to pgm)
QUIT       Yes   Yes Quit
ILL        Yes   Yes Illegal instruction
TRAP       Yes   Yes No      Trace/breakpoint trap (not passed to pgm)
ABRT       Yes   Yes Aborted
EMT        Yes   Yes Emulation trap
FPE        Yes   Yes Arithmetic exception
KILL       Yes   Yes Killed
BUS        Yes   Yes Bus error
SEGV       Yes   Yes Segmentation fault
SYS        Yes   Yes Bad system call
PIPE       Yes   Yes Broken pipe
ALRM       No    No  Alarm clock
TERM       Yes   Yes Terminated
URG        No    No  Urgent I/O condition
STOP       Yes   Yes Stopped (signal)
TSTP       Yes   Yes Stopped (user)
CONT       Yes   Yes Continued
CHLD       No    No  Child status changed
TTIN       Yes   Yes Stopped (tty input)
TTOU       Yes   Yes Stopped (tty output)
IO         No    No  I/O possible
XCPU       Yes   Yes CPU time limit exceeded
XFSZ       Yes   Yes File size limit exceeded
VTALRM     No    No  Virtual timer expired
PROF       No    No  Profiling timer expired
WINCH      No    No  Window size changed
LOST       Yes   Yes Resource lost
USR1       Yes   Yes User defined signal 1
USR2       Yes   Yes User defined signal 2
PWR        Yes   Yes Power fail/restart
POLL       No    No  Pollable event occurred
WIND       Yes   Yes SIGWIND
PHONE      Yes   Yes SIGPHONE
WAITING    No    No  Process's LWPs are blocked
LWP        No    No  Signal LWP
DANGER     Yes   Yes Swap space dangerously low
GRANT      Yes   Yes Monitor mode granted
RETRACT    Yes   Yes Need to relinquish monitor mode
MSG        Yes   Yes Monitor mode data available
SOUND      Yes   Yes Sound completed
SAK        Yes   Yes Secure attention
PRIO       No    No  SIGPRIO
CANCEL     No    No  LWP internal signal
32         No    No  Real-time event 32
33         No    No  Real-time event 32
34         Yes   Yes  Real-time event 32
…
127        Yes   Yes Real-time event 127
INFO       Yes   Yes Information request
LIBRT      No    No  librt internal signal 

EXC_BAD_ACCESS Yes  Yes Could not access memory
EXC_BAD_INSTRUCTION Yes Yes Yes Illegal instruction/operand
EXC_ARITHMETIC Yes  Yes Arithmetic exception
EXC_EMULATION Yes   Yes Emulation instruction
EXC_SOFTWARE  Yes   Yes Software generated exception 
EXC_BREAKPOINT Yes  Yes Breakpoint

i inferiors IDs of specified inferiors (all inferiors if no argument)
i line Core addresses of the code for a source line
i locals Local variables of current stack frame
i macro the definition of MACRO
i macros the definitions of all macros at LINESPEC
i mem Memory region attributes
i os cpus , files , modules loaded kernel modules , msg queues , processes, procgroups, semaphores , shm shared-memory regions , sockets , threads

i os cpus

processor  model name                             BogoMIPS   
0          ARMv6-compatible processor rev 7 (v6l) 997.08     

Features                               
half thumb fastmult vfp edsp java tls 
CPU implementer  architecture variant part revision Hardware   Revision   Serial     
0x41       7          0x0        0xb76      7          BCM2835    9000c1     0000000098490ec6 
i pretty-printer GDB command to list all registered pretty-printers
i proc /proc process information about any running process
i proc cmdline command line arguments
i proc all /proc info
i proc cwd current working directory
i proc exe absolute filename for executable
i proc mappings mapped memory regions
i proc stat /proc/PID/stat
i proc status /proc/PID/status
i program
i record
i registers
inf scope variables local to a scope
i selectors All Objective-C selectors
i set all GDB settings
i sharedlibrary Status of loaded shared object libraries
i signals What debugger does when program gets various signals
i skip Display the status of skips
i source Information about the current source file
i sources Source files in the program
i stack Backtrace of the stack
i static-tracepoint-markers List target static tracepoints markers
i symbol Describe what symbol is at location ADDR
i target Names of targets and files being debugged
i tasks Provide information about all known Ada tasks
i terminal Print inferior's saved terminal status
i threads Display currently known threads
i tracepoints Status of specified tracepoints (all tracepoints if no argument)
i tvariables Status of trace state variables and their values
i types All type names
i variables All global and static variable names
i vector Print the status of the vector unit
i warranty Various kinds of warranty you do not have
i watchpoints Status of specified watchpoints (all watchpoints if no argument)
i win List of all displayed windows
macro Prefix for commands dealing with C preprocessor macros
macro define Define a new C/C++ preprocessor macro
macro expand Fully expand any C/C++ preprocessor macro invocations in EXPRESSION
macro expand-once Expand C/C++ preprocessor macro invocations appearing directly in EXPRESSION
macro list List all the macros defined using the `macro define' command
macro undef Remove the definition of the C/C++ preprocessor macro with the given name
show Generic command for shoing things about the debugger
sho ada Generic command for showing Ada-specific settings
sho ada trust-PAD-over-XVS whether an optimization trusting PAD types over XVS types is activated
sho annotate annotation_level
sho architecture architecture of target
sho args argument list to give program being debugged when it is started
sho arm Various ARM-specific commands
sho arm abi the ABI
sho arm apcs32 usage of ARM 32-bit mode
sho arm disassembler the disassembly style
sho arm fallback-mode the mode assumed when symbols are unavailable
sho arm force-mode the mode assumed even when symbols are available
sho arm fpu the floating point type
sho auto-load-scripts the debugger's behaviour regarding auto-loaded scripts
sho auto-solib-add autoloading of shared library symbols
sho basenames-may-differ whether a source file may have multiple base names
sho breakpoint Breakpoint specific settings
sho breakpoint always-inserted mode for inserting breakpoints
sho breakpoint auto-hw automatic usage of hardware breakpoints
sho breakpoint pending debugger's behavior regarding pending breakpoints
sho can-use-hw-watchpoints debugger's willingness to use watchpoint hardware
sho case-sensitive case sensitivity in name search
sho charset the host and target character sets
sho check the status of the type/range checker
sho check range range checking
sho check type type checking
sho circular-trace-buffer target's use of circular trace buffer
sho coerce-float-to-double coercion of floats to doubles when calling functions
sho commands the history of commands you typed
sho complaints max number of complaints about incorrect symbols
sho confirm whether to confirm potentially dangerous operations
sho convenience Debugger convenience ("$foo") variables
sho copying Conditions for redistributing copies of GDB
sho cp-abi the ABI used for inspecting C++ objects
sho data-directory GDB's data directory
sho dcache dcachesettings
sho dcache line-size dcache line size
sho dcache size number of dcache lines
sho debug Generic command for showing gdb debugging flags
sho debug arch architecture debugging
sho debug arm ARM debugging
sho debug check-physname cross-checking of "physname" code against demangler
sho debug displaced displaced stepping debugging
sho debug dwarf2-die debugging of the dwarf2 DIE reader
sho debug entry-values entry values and tail call frames debugging
sho debug expression expression debugging
sho debug frame frame debugging
sho debug infrun inferior debugging
sho debug jit JIT debugging
sho debug libthread-db libthread-db debugging
sho debug lin-lwp debugging of GNU/Linux lwp module
sho debug observer observer debugging
sho debug overload debugging of C++ overloading
sho debug parser parser debugging
sho debug record debugging of record/replay feature
sho debug remote debugging of remote protocol
sho debug serial serial debugging
sho debug target target debugging
sho debug timestamp timestamping of debugging messages
sho debug xml XML parser debugging
sho debug-file-directory the directories where separate debug symbols are searched for
sho debugvarobj varobj debugging
sho default-collect the list of expressions to collect by default
sho demangle-style the current C++ demangling style
sho detach-on-fork whether gdb will detach the child of a fork
sho directories the search path for finding source files
sho disable-randomization disabling of debuggee's virtual address space randomization
sho disassemble-next-line whether to disassemble next source line or insn when execution stops
sho disconnected-tracing whether tracing continues after GDB disconnects
sho displaced-stepping debugger's willingness to use displaced stepping
sho editing editing of command lines as they are typed
sho endian endianness of target
sho environment The environment to give the program
sho exec-direction direction of execution (forward/reverse)
sho exec-done-display notification of completion for asynchronous execution commands
sho exec-wrapper the wrapper for running programs
sho extended-prompt the extended prompt
sho extension-language mapping between filename extension and source language
sho follow-exec-mode debugger response to a program call of exec
sho follow-fork-mode debugger response to a program call of fork or vfork
sho gnutarget the current BFD target
sho height number of lines gdb thinks are in a page
sho history Generic command for showing command history parameters
sho history expansion history expansion on command input
sho history filename the filename in which to record the command history
sho history save saving of the history record on exit
sho history size the size of the command history
sho host-charset the host character set
sho inferior-tty terminal for future runs of program being debugged
sho input-radix default input radix for entering numbers
sho interactive-mode whether GDB's standard input is a terminal
sho language the current source language
sho libthread-db-search-path the current search path or libthread_db
sho listsize number of source lines gdb will list by default
sho logging logging options
sho logging file the current logfile
sho logging overwrite whether logging overwrites or appends to the log file
sho logging redirect the logging output mode
sho max-user-call-depth the max call depth for user-defined commands
sho may-insert-breakpoints permission to insert breakpoints in the target
sho may-insert-fast-tracepoints permission to insert fast tracepoints in the target
sho may-insert-tracepoints permission to insert tracepoints in the target
sho may-interrupt permission to interrupt or signal the target
sho may-write-memory permission to write into target memory
sho may-write-registers permission to write into registers
sho mem Memory regions settings
sho mem inaccessible-by-default handling of unknown memory regions
sho multiple-symbols how the debugger handles ambiguities in expressions
sho non-stop whether gdb controls the inferior in non-stop mode
sho observer whether gdb controls the inferior in observer mode
sho opaque-type-resolution resolution of opaque struct/class/union types (if set before loading symbols)
sho osabi OS ABI of target
sho output-radix default output radix for printing of values
sho overload-resolution overload resolution in evaluating C++ functions
sho pagination state of pagination
sho paths Current search path for finding object files
sho print Generic command for showing print settings
sho print address printing of addresses
sho print array prettyprinting of arrays
sho print array-indexes printing of array indexes
sho print asm-demangle demangling of C++/ObjC names in disassembly listings
sho print demangle demangling of encoded C++/ObjC names when displaying symbols
sho print elements limit on string chars or array elements to print
sho print entry-values printing of function arguments at function entry
sho print frame-arguments printing of non-scalar frame arguments
sho print inferior-events printing of inferior events (e
sho print max-symbolic-offset the largest offset that will be printed in form
sho print null-stop printing of char arrays to stop at first null char
sho print object printing of object's derived type based on vtable info
sho print pascal_static-members printing of pascal static members
sho print pretty prettyprinting of structures
sho print repeats threshold for repeated print elements
sho print sevenbit-strings printing of 8-bit characters in strings as \nnn
sho print static-members printing of C++ static members
sho print symbol-filename printing of source filename and line number with
sho print thread-events printing of thread events (such as thread start and exit)
sho print union printing of unions interior to structures
sho print vtbl printing of C++ virtual function tables
sho prompt gdb's prompt
sho python Prefix command for python preference settings
sho python print-stack the mode of Python stack printing on error
sho radix the default input and output number radices
sho record record options
sho record insn-number-max record/replay buffer limit
sho record memory-query whether query if PREC cannot record memory change of next instruction
sho record stop-at-limit whether record/replay stops when record/replay buffer becomes full

show remote

show remote Remote protocol specific variables
show remote P-packet `P' (set-register) packet
show remote TracepointSource-packet `TracepointSource' (TracepointSource) packet
show remote X-packet `X' (binary-download) packet
show remote Z-packet use of remote protocol `Z' packets
show remote access-watchpoint-packet `Z4' (access-watchpoint) packet
show remote allow-packet `QAllow' (allow) packet
show remote attach-packet `vAttach' (attach) packet
show remote binary-download-packet `X' (binary-download) packet
show remote conditional-tracepoints-packet `ConditionalTracepoints' (conditional-tracepoints) packet
show remote disable-randomization-packet `QDisableRandomization' (disable-randomization) packet
show remote exec-file the remote pathname for "run"
show remote fast-tracepoints-packet `FastTracepoints' (fast-tracepoints) packet
show remote fetch-register-packet `p' (fetch-register) packet
show remote get-thread-information-block-address-packet `qGetTIBAddr' (get-thread-information-block-address) packet
show remote get-thread-local-storage-address-packet `qGetTLSAddr' (get-thread-local-storage-address) packet
show remote hardware-breakpoint-limit the maximum number of target hardware breakpoints
show remote hardware-breakpoint-packet `Z1' (hardware-breakpoint) packet
show remote hardware-watchpoint-length-limit the maximum length (in bytes) of a target hardware watchpoint
show remote hardware-watchpoint-limit the maximum number of target hardware watchpoints
show remote hostio-close-packet `vFile:close' (hostio-close) packet
show remote hostio-open-packet `vFile:open' (hostio-open) packet
show remote hostio-pread-packet `vFile:pread' (hostio-pread) packet
show remote hostio-pwrite-packet `vFile:pwrite' (hostio-pwrite) packet
show remote hostio-unlink-packet `vFile:unlink' (hostio-unlink) packet
show remote install-in-trace-packet `InstallInTrace' (install-in-trace) packet
show remote interrupt-on-connect Show whether interrupt-sequence is sent to remote target when gdb connects to
show remote interrupt-sequence interrupt sequence to remote target
show remote kill-packet `vKill' (kill) packet
show remote library-info-packet `qXfer:libraries:read' (library-info) packet
show remote library-info-svr4-packet `qXfer:libraries-svr4:read' (library-info-svr4) packet
show remote memory-map-packet `qXfer:memory-map:read' (memory-map) packet
show remote memory-read-packet-size the maximum number of bytes per memory-read packet
show remote memory-write-packet-size the maximum number of bytes per memory-write packet
show remote noack-packet `QStartNoAckMode' (noack) packet
show remote osdata-packet `qXfer:osdata:read' (osdata) packet
show remote p-packet `p' (fetch-register) packet
show remote pass-signals-packet `QPassSignals' (pass-signals) packet
show remote query-attached-packet `qAttached' (query-attached) packet
show remote read-aux-vector-packet `qXfer:auxv:read' (read-aux-vector) packet
show remote read-fdpic-loadmap-packet `qXfer:fdpic:read' (read-fdpic-loadmap) packet
show remote read-sdata-object-packet `qXfer:statictrace:read' (read-sdata-object) packet
show remote read-siginfo-object-packet `qXfer:siginfo:read' (read-siginfo-object) packet
show remote read-spu-object-packet `qXfer:spu:read' (read-spu-object) packet
show remote read-watchpoint-packet `Z3' (read-watchpoint) packet
show remote reverse-continue-packet `bc' (reverse-continue) packet
show remote reverse-step-packet `bs' (reverse-step) packet
show remote run-packet `vRun' (run) packet
show remote search-memory-packet `qSearch:memory' (search-memory) packet
show remote set-register-packet `P' (set-register) packet
show remote software-breakpoint-packet `Z0' (software-breakpoint) packet
show remote static-tracepoints-packet `StaticTracepoints' (static-tracepoints) packet
show remote supported-packets-packet `qSupported' (supported-packets) packet
show remote symbol-lookup-packet `qSymbol' (symbol-lookup) packet
show remote system-call-allowed if the host system(3) call is allowed for the target
show remote target-features-packet `qXfer:features:read' (target-features) packet
show remote threads-packet `qXfer:threads:read' (threads) packet
show remote traceframe-info-packet `qXfer:trace-frame-info:read' (traceframe-info) packet
show remote verbose-resume-packet `vCont' (verbose-resume) packet
show remote write-siginfo-object-packet `qXfer:siginfo:write' (write-siginfo-object) packet
show remote write-spu-object-packet `qXfer:spu:write' (write-spu-object) packet
show remote write-watchpoint-packet `Z2' (write-watchpoint) packet
show remoteaddresssize the maximum size of the address (in bits) in a memory packet
show remotebaud baud rate for remote serial I/O
show remotebreak whether to send break if interrupted
show remotecache cache use for remote targets
show remoteflow use of hardware flow control for remote serial I/O
show remotelogbase numerical base for remote session logging
show remotelogfile filename for remote session recording
show remotetimeout timeout limit to wait for target to respond
show remotewritesize the maximum number of bytes per memory write packet (deprecated)
show schedule-multiple mode for resuming threads of all processes
show scheduler-locking mode for locking scheduler during execution
show script-extension mode for script filename extension recognition
show serial default serial/parallel port configuration
show solib-absolute-prefix the current system root
show solib-search-path the search path for loading non-absolute shared library symbol files
show stack-cache cache use for stack access
show step-mode mode of the step operation
show stop-on-solib-events stopping for shared library events
show substitute-path Usage: show substitute-path [FROM]
show symbol-reloading dynamic symbol table reloading multiple times in one run
show sysroot the current system root
show target-async whether gdb controls the inferior in asynchronous mode
show target-charset the target character set
show target-file-system-kind assumed file system kind for target reported file names
show target-wide-charset the target wide character set
show tcp TCP protocol specific variables
show tcp auto-retry auto-retry on socket connect
show tcp connect-timeout timeout limit for socket connection
show tdesc target description specific variables
show tdesc filename the file to read for an XML target description
show trace-commands state of GDB CLI command tracing
show trace-notes the notes string to use for current and future trace runs
show trace-stop-notes the notes string to use for future tstop commands
show trace-user the user name to use for current and future trace runs
show trust-readonly-sections mode for reading from readonly sections
show tui TUI configuration variables
show tui active-border-mode the attribute mode to use for the active TUI window border
show tui border-kind the kind of border for TUI windows
show tui border-mode the attribute mode to use for the TUI window borders
show unwind-on-terminating-exception unwinding of stack if std::terminate() is called while in a call dummy
show unwindonsignal unwinding of stack if a signal is received while in a call dummy
show user definitions of user defined commands
show values Elements of value history around item number IDX (or last ten)
show verbose verbosity
show version what version of GDB this is
show warranty Various kinds of warranty you do not have
show watchdog watchdog timer
show width number of characters gdb thinks are in a line
show write writing into executable and core files
support     TOC
! Execute the rest of the line as a shell command
alias Define a new command that is an alias of an existing command
apropos Search for commands matching a REGEXP
define Define a new command name
document Document a user-defined command
dont-repeat Don't repeat this command
down-silently Same as the `down' command
echo Print a constant string
help Print list of commands
if Execute nested commands once IF the conditional expression is non zero
interpreter-exec Execute a command in an interpreter
make Run the ``make'' program using the rest of the line as arguments
overlay Commands for debugging overlays
overlay auto Enable automatic overlay debugging
overlay list-overlays List mappings of overlay sections
overlay load-target Read the overlay mapping state from the target
overlay manual Enable overlay debugging
overlay map-overlay Assert that an overlay section is mapped
overlay off Disable overlay debugging
overlay unmap-overlay Assert that an overlay section is unmapped
quit Exit gdb
shell Execute the rest of the line as a shell command
source Read commands from a file named FILE
up-silently Same as the `up' command
while Execute nested commands WHILE the conditional expression is non zero
tracepoints     TOC
actions Specify the actions to be taken at a tracepoint
collect Specify one or more data items to be collected at a tracepoint
end Ends a list of commands or actions
passcount the passcount for a tracepoint
save-tracepoints Save current tracepoint definitions as a script
tdump Print everything collected at the current tracepoint
teval Specify one or more expressions to be evaluated at a tracepoint
tfind Select a trace frame;
tfind end Synonym for 'none'
tfind line Select a trace frame by source line
tfind none De-select any trace frame and resume 'live' debugging
tfind outside Select a trace frame whose PC is outside the given range (exclusive)
tfind pc Select a trace frame by PC
tfind range Select a trace frame whose PC is in the given range (inclusive)
tfind start Select the first trace frame in the trace buffer
tfind tracepoint Select a trace frame by tracepoint number
tsave Save the trace data to a file
tstart Start trace data collection
tstatus Display the status of the current trace data collection
tstop Stop trace data collection
tvariable Define a trace state variable
while-stepping Specify single-stepping behavior at a tracepoint
user-defined     TOC
Unclassified commands
add-inferior Add a new inferior
clone-inferior Clone inferior ID
remove-inferiors Remove inferior ID (or list of IDs)
eval Convert "printf format string"
function Placeholder command for showing help on convenience functions
jit-reader-load Load FILE as debug info reader and unwinder for JIT compiled code
jit-reader-unload Unload the currently loaded JIT debug info reader
unset Complement to certain "set" commands
unset environment Cancel environment variable VAR for the program
unset exec-wrapper Disable use of an execution wrapper
unset substitute-path Usage: unset substitute-path [FROM]
unset tdesc Unset target description specific variables
unset tdesc filename Unset the file to read for an XML target description
i copying Conditions for redistributing copies of GDB
i variables
All defined variables:
Non-debugging symbols:
0x00415160 __CPPdebugHook
0x00415160 strErr!___CPPdebugHook
x[/fmt] [ address]