As commands are entered they are stored in the history list and are retained across sessions (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).
Commands can be recalled with ↑ , modified as if they had just been entered and executed (see readline)
When using command-line editing, search commands are available in each editing mode that provide access to the history list (see Commands For History).
history [n] †
history -ps arg
history [-anrw] [filename]
history -d offset
Display the last
n lines of the history list with line numbers,
* prefix indicates modified line.
> history 6 829 2016-02-17 16:03:39 vi diskUtilityDefaultsAll.html 830 2016-02-17 16:12:57 chmod 704 diskUtilityDefaultsAll.html 831 2016-02-17 16:13:15 vi defaults.1.html 832 2016-02-17 18:25:30 cd docs 833 2016-02-17 18:25:40 ls -l disk*
filename defaults to
Lists or edits and re-execute a portion of the history list.
fc [-e editor] [-lnr] [first] [last]
fc -s [pat=rep] [command]
last may be strings (to locate the most recent command beginning with that string) or
numbers, an index into the history list, a negative number is used as an offset from the current command number.
first is not specified it is set to -1 i.e. the previous command for editing and -16 for listing.
last is not specified it is set to
-l lists commands.
-n no command numbers are shown.
-r reverses the order of the listing. (without
-l, results in commands being executed in the reverse order then when they were entered !)
vi is invoked on a file containing those commands.
When editing is complete, the edited commands are echoed and executed.
fc -s [pat=rep] [command]
command is executed after all
pat replaced by
A useful alias is
r='fc -s', so that typing
r cc runs the last command beginning with
cc and typing
r re-executes the last command (see Aliases).
Introduced by the appearance of the history expansion character, default:
Enabled by default for interactive shells, and can be disabled using
History expansions introduce words from the history list into the input stream, making it easy to repeat commands, insert the arguments to a previous command into the current input line, or fix errors in previous commands quickly.
History expansion is performed immediately after a complete line is read, before the shell breaks it into words. It takes place in parts.
'may be used to escape the history expansion character.
shopt may be used to tailor the behavior of history expansion.
histverify is enabled, expanded line is loaded into the editing buffer for further modification.
histreedit is enabled, a failed history expansion will be reloaded into the editing buffer for correction.
The shell allows control of the various characters used by the history expansion mechanism with the histchars variable, as explained above (see Bash Variables). The shell uses the history comment character to mark history timestamps when writing the history file.
:separates the event specification from the word designator. It may be omitted if the word designator begins with a
!!last argument of the preceding command.
!$. second argument of the most recent command starting with the letters fi.
If a word designator is supplied without an event specification, the previous command is used as the event.
set -o history enables the history (default on for interactive shells).
The history list is initialized from
When an interactive shell exits, the last
$HISTSIZE lines are copied from the history list to
$HISTFILE (or appended based on
histappend ) and then truncated to
$HISTCONTROL control the text of the command, prior to parameter and variable expansion but after history expansion.
$HISTTIMEFORMAT time stamp is included with each entry, marked with the history comment character. When the history file is read, lines beginning with the history comment character followed immediately by a digit are interpreted as timestamps.
$HISTTIMEFORMAT (default sometimes:
%F %T) format string for
strftime to display the time stamp with each entry.
$HISTIGNORE may be set to cause the shell to save only a subset of the commands entered.
cmdhist causes the shell to attempt to save each line of a multi-line command in the same history entry, adding semicolons where necessary to preserve syntactic correctness.
lithist (Literal History) causes the commands to be saved with embedded newlines
shopt sets these options.